Alphabetical List of TEXTEX Commands available in MathJax

symbols
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
environments

Know the shape of a character that you want, but not its name?   Draw it here!

symbols
#   indicates numbered arguments in definitions

مثال :
\def\specialFrac#1#2{\frac{x + #1}{y + #2}}
\specialFrac{7}{z+3}
نمایش می دهد x+7y+z+3x+7y+z+3
%   used for a single-line comment;
shows only in the source code;
does not show in the rendered expression

Example (showing the math block delimiters):
$$
% Note: (x+1)^2 is NOT x^2 + 1
(x+1)^2      % original expression
= (x+1)(x+1) % definition of exponent
= x^2 + 2x + 1 % FOIL, combine like terms
$$
نمایش می دهد (x+1)2=(x+1)(x+1)=x2+2x+1(x+1)2=(x+1)(x+1)=x2+2x+1
Internet Explorer caution:
&   used as separators in alignment environments;
used in HTML entity references within math mode;
for a literal ampersand, use \&

مثال ها :
\begin{matrix}
a & b\cr
c & d
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد abcdabcd
a < b نمایش می دهد a<ba
\text{Carol }\&\text{ Julia} نمایش می دهد Carol & JuliaCarol & Julia
^   used to indicate exponents;
used to indicate superscripts;
used for limits on large operators and in some ‘vertical’ constructions (see مثال ها )
^ #2
argument #1 is optional;
use braces, as needed, to clarify what is the exponent

مثال ها :
^i نمایش می دهد ii
x^i_2 نمایش می دهد xi2x2i
{x^i}_2 نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
x^{i_2} نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
x^{i^2} نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
{x^i}^2 نمایش می دهد xi2xi2 Note:   x^i^2 نمایش می دهد an error.
^ax^b نمایش می دهد axbaxb
\sum_{n=1}^\infty نمایش می دهد n=1∑n=1∞ (inline mode)
\overbrace{x+\cdots+x}
  ^{n\text{ times}}
نمایش می دهد n timesx++xx+⋯+x⏞n times
_   used to indicate subscripts;
used for limits on large operators and in some ‘vertical’ constructions (see مثال ها )
_ #2
argument #1 is optional;
use braces, as needed, to clarify what is the subscript

مثال ها :
_2 نمایش می دهد 22
x_i^2 نمایش می دهد x2ixi2
{x_i}^2 نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
x_{i^2} نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
x_{i_2} نمایش می دهد xi2xi2
{x_i}_2 نمایش می دهد xi2xi2 Note:   x_i_2 نمایش می دهد an error.
^a_bx^c_d نمایش می دهد abxcdbaxdc
\sum_{n=1}^\infty نمایش می دهد n=1∑n=1∞ (inline mode)
\underbrace{x+\cdots+x}
  _{n\text{ times}}
نمایش می دهد x++xn timesx+⋯+x⏟n times
{ }   braces, used for grouping;
for literal braces, use \{ and \}

There are two basic grouping constructs that use braces;
I will refer to them as ‘arguments’ versus ‘braced groups’.
If you're not aware which construct is in force, then you can get unexpected results.
The مثال ها below should clarify.

ARGUMENTS:
In this documentation, arguments are indicated by #1, #2, etc.
An argument is either a single ‘token’ (like ‘a’ or ‘\alpha’), or is a group enclosed in braces.
For example, the   \boldsymbol   command takes an argument, notated by:
\boldsymbol #1
Thus:
\boldsymbol aa نمایش می دهد aaaa the first token, ‘a’, becomes bold
\boldsymbol \alpha\alpha نمایش می دهد αααα the first token, ‘\alpha’, becomes bold
\boldsymbol{a\alpha}a\alpha نمایش می دهد aαaαaαaα braces have been used to make the argument the group ‘a\alpha’,
so both become bold


BRACED GROUPS:
A ‘braced group’ is a group, enclosed by braces, inside which some behavior is in force.
The   \bf   (boldface) command operates inside a braced group, notated by:
{\bf ... }
Here,  \bf  is a switch, which ‘turns on’ boldface inside the braced group;
boldface ends when the braced group ends.

Sometimes, you may not see the opening ‘{’ that signals the start of a braced group.
In this situation, when does a command (like  \bf ) end?
It ends at whichever occurs first:
  • it is replaced by a competing command (e.g.,  \bf  is replaced by  \rm )
  • the end of math mode (math delimiters form an implicit local group)
مثال ها :   (explicit braced groups are indicated in red, for your convenience)
\bf ab نمایش می دهد abab turn on boldface;
stays on to end of math mode
{\bf ab}cd نمایش می دهد abcdabcd an explicit braced group is entered;
the ‘cd’ falls outside this group
\bf{ab}cd نمایش می دهد abcdabcd turn on boldface;
stays on to end of math mode;
the braces here are extraneous
{\bf{ab}c}d نمایش می دهد abcdabcd boldface operates inside a braced group;
the ‘d’ falls outside this group
{efg\bf{ab}c}d نمایش می دهد efgabcdefgabcd the ‘efg’ occur before boldface is turned on
ab \bf cd \rm ef نمایش می دهد abcdefabcdef the competing   \rm   replaces boldface
ab \bf cd {\rm ef} gh نمایش می دهد abcdefghabcdefgh the ‘gh’ is still in boldface

Make sure you see the difference in the behaviors below:
\boldsymbol{ab}cd نمایش می دهد abcdabcd \boldsymbol   takes an argument
\bf{ab}cd نمایش می دهد abcdabcd \bf   does not take an argument;
instead, \bf ‘turns on’ boldface behavior
\!   negative thin space;  i.e., it ‘back ups’ a thin space amount

مثال ها :
\rm IR نمایش می دهد IRIR
\rm I\! R نمایش می دهد IRIR
see also:   \negthinspace
\,
\:
\>
\;
 
\, thin space (normally 16=31816=318 of a quad)
\: medium space (normally 29=41829=418 of a quad)
\> alternate medium space
\; thick space (normally 518518 of a quad)

مثال ها :
normal spacing between letters: abababababababab
using \, between letters: abababababababab
using \: between letters: abababababababab
using \> between letters: abababababababab
using \; between letters: abababababababab

see also:   \thinspace
\   (backslash space)  
control space;
TEXTEX often ignores spaces, or collapses multiple spaces to a single space.
A control space is used to force TEXTEX to typeset a space.
class ORD

مثال ها :
\rm This is a sentence. نمایش می دهد Thisisasentence.Thisisasentence.
\rm This\ is\ a\ sentence. نمایش می دهد This is a sentence.This is a sentence.
\rm This~is~a~sentence. نمایش می دهد This is a sentence.This is a sentence.
\text{This is a sentence.} نمایش می دهد This is a sentence.This is a sentence.
in MathJax, this is the same as:   \nobreakspace,   \space,   ~ (tilde character)
see also:   \text
~   (tilde character)  
In TEXTEX this is a non-breaking space—i.e., a blank space where TEXTEX is not allowed to break between lines.
MathJax (unlike TEXTEX) doesn't do any automatic breaking of lines, so MathJax will not break at any space.
The tilde is useful to force a space where MathJax would otherwise collapse or ignore spaces, as illustrated in the مثال ها below.
class ORD

Click here to see مثال ها of what happens with very long math in MathJax.

مثال ها :
\rm Dr. Carol J.V. Fisher نمایش می دهد Dr.CarolJ.V.FisherDr.CarolJ.V.Fisher
\rm Dr.~Carol~J.V.~Fisher نمایش می دهد Dr. Carol J.V. FisherDr. Carol J.V. Fisher
\text{Dr. Carol J.V. Fisher} نمایش می دهد Dr. Carol J.V. FisherDr. Carol J.V. Fisher
a b      c d نمایش می دهد abcdabcd
a~b~~~~~~c~d نمایش می دهد a b      c da b      c d
in MathJax, this is the same as:   \nobreakspace,   \space,   \ (backslash space)
\# ##
literal number sign; literal pound sign;
needed since   #   is used to indicate arguments in definitions
#   class ORD
\$ $$
literal dollar sign;
needed since   $   may (optionally) be used to delimit math mode

Dollar sign outside of math mode:
$   class ORD
\% %%
literal percent sign;
needed since   %   is used to begin a single-line comment
%   class ORD
\& &&
literal ampersand;
needed since ampersands are used as separators in alignment environments
and for HTML entity references inside math mode
&   class ORD

see also:   \And
\\   line separator in alignment modes and environments

مثال :
\begin{gather}a\\a+b\\a+b+c\end{gather} نمایش می دهد aa+ba+b+caa+ba+b+c
For a literal backslash, see \backslash.

in MathJax, these are essentially the same:   \cr,   \newline
\_ __
literal underscore;
needed since underscores are used for subscripts
_   class ORD

مثال ها :
a_2 نمایش می دهد a2a2
a\_2 نمایش می دهد a_2a_2
\{ \} { }{ }
literal braces;
needed since braces are used for grouping in math mode;
non-stretchy when used alone; stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
\{ is class OPEN
\} is class CLOSE

مثال ها :
{1,2,3} نمایش می دهد 1,2,31,2,3
\{1,2,3\} نمایش می دهد {1,2,3}{1,2,3}
\left\{\frac ab,c\right\} نمایش می دهد {ab,c}{ab,c}
see also:   \brace,   \lbrace,   \rbrace
| ||
pipe character; vertical bar; absolute value;
non-stretchy when used alone; stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
class ORD

مثال ها :
|x| نمایش می دهد |x||x|
|\frac ab| نمایش می دهد |ab||ab|
\left|\frac ab\right| نمایش می دهد ab|ab|
\{x | x\in\Bbb Z\} نمایش می دهد {x|xZ}{x|x∈Z}
\{x\,|\,x\in\Bbb Z\} نمایش می دهد {x|xZ}{x|x∈Z}

see also:   \lvert,   \rvert,   \vert
\|
double pipe character; double vertical bar; norm;
non-stretchy when used alone; stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
  class ORD

مثال ها :
\|x\| نمایش می دهد x‖x‖
\|\frac ab\| نمایش می دهد ab‖ab‖
\left\|\frac ab\right\| نمایش می دهد ab‖ab‖
see also:   \lVert,   \rVert,   \Vert
( ) ( )( )
parentheses;
non-stretchy when used alone; stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
( is class OPEN;
) is class CLOSE

مثال ها :
(\frac ab,c) نمایش می دهد (ab,c)(ab,c)
\left(\frac ab,c\right) نمایش می دهد (ab,c)(ab,c)
. ..
period; decimal point class PUNCT

In some math environments (but not all):
With numbers on either side, there is no surrounding space: 3.14 نمایش می دهد 3.143.14
With non-numeric characters, there is a slight amount of space on right: a.b نمایش می دهد a.ba.b
To suppress this space, enclose the ‘.’ in braces: a{.}b نمایش می دهد a.ba.b
/ //
forward slash;
can be used to denote division
class ORD

مثال :
a/b نمایش می دهد a/ba/b
+ ++
plus symbol;
e.g., used for addition
class BIN

مثال :
a+b نمایش می دهد a+ba+b
-
minus symbol;
e.g., used for subtraction
class BIN

مثال :
a-b نمایش می دهد aba−b
-b نمایش می دهد b−b in most cases, proper spacing is achieved
to denote an opposite
\text{first: } -a\star b نمایش می دهد first: abfirst: −a⋆b an unusual situation;
spacing is not optimal
\text{first: } {-}a\star b نمایش می دهد first: abfirst: −a⋆b in such cases, you can put the minus sign
(or, the group  -a ) inside braces
to suppress extra space
[ ] [ ][ ]
(square) brackets;
non-stretchy when used alone; stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
[ is class OPEN;
] is class CLOSE

مثال ها :
[\frac ab,c] نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]
\left[\frac ab,c\right] نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]

see also:   \brack,   \lbrack,   \rbrack
= ==
equal; equals class REL

see also:   \ne,   \neq
'
prime symbol class ORD

مثال :
f(x) = x^2,\ 
f'(x) = 2x,\ 
f''(x) = 2
نمایش می دهد f(x)=x2, f(x)=2x, f′′(x)=2f(x)=x2, f′(x)=2x, f″(x)=2
see also:   \prime

A
\above   general command for making fractions;
gives control over thickness of horizontal fraction bar
{ \above <dimen> }
Creates a fraction:
numerator:   subformula1
denominator:   subformula2
fraction bar has thickness:   dimen

There are separate local groups for  subformula1  and  subformula2 ; if these local groups are not explicit, then unexpected results may occur, as illustrated in the choose discussion.

مثال ها :
a+1 \above 1pt b نمایش می دهد a+1ba+1b
a \above 1pt b+2 نمایش می دهد ab+2ab+2
{a+1 \above 1.5pt b+2}+c نمایش می دهد a+1b+2+ca+1b+2+c
see also:   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\abovewithdelims   general command for making fractions;
gives control over thickness of horizontal fraction bar;
specifies left and right enclosing delimiters
{ \abovewithdelims <dimen> }
Creates a fraction:
numerator:   subformula1
denominator:   subformula2
fraction bar has thickness:   dimen
delim1   is put before the fraction
delim2   is put after the fraction
For an empty delimiter, use ‘.’ in place of the delimiter.

There are separate local groups for  subformula1  and  subformula2 ; if these local groups are not explicit, then unexpected results may occur, as illustrated in the choose discussion.

مثال ها :
a+1 \abovewithdelims [ ] 1pt b نمایش می دهد [a+1b][a+1b]
{a \abovewithdelims . | 1.5pt b+2}_{a=3} نمایش می دهد ab+2a=3ab+2|a=3
{a+1 \abovewithdelims \{ \} 1pt b+2}+c نمایش می دهد {a+1b+2}+c{a+1b+2}+c
see also:     \above,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\acute ´´ ˊ
acute accent
\acute #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\acute e نمایش می دهد ´e
\acute E نمایش می دهد ´E
\acute eu نمایش می دهد ´eue´u
\acute{eu} نمایش می دهد ´eueu´
\aleph
Hebrew letter aleph;
commonly used for the cardinality of the real numbers
  class ORD
\alpha αα
lowercase Greek letter alpha α   class ORD
\amalg ⨿⨿
this symbol is often used for co-products ⨿   class BIN
\And &&
ampersand &   class ORD

see also:   \&
\angle
    class ORD
\approx
    class REL
\approxeq AMSsymbols
    class REL
\arccos arccosarccos
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

If alternate notation is desired, define:
\def\arccosAlt{\cos^{-1}}   so that   $\arccosAlt(x)$   نمایش می دهد   cos1(x)cos−1⁡(x)
class OP
\arcsin arcsinarcsin
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

If alternate notation is desired, define:
\def\arcsinAlt{\sin^{-1}}   so that   $\arcsinAlt(x)$   نمایش می دهد   sin1(x)sin−1⁡(x)
class OP
\arctan arctanarctan
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

If alternate notation is desired, define:
\def\arctanAlt{\tan^{-1}}   so that   $\arctanAlt(x)$   نمایش می دهد   tan1(x)tan−1⁡(x)
class OP
\arg argarg
the complex argument function;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP
\array   a synonym for  \matrix 
\array{ & ... \cr }
alignment occurs at the ampersands;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

مثال :
\array{ a & b+1 \cr c+1 & d } نمایش می دهد ab+1c+1dab+1c+1d

see also:   \matrix
\arrowvert
not intended for direct use;
used internally to create stretchy delimiters
  class ORD

see also:   |,   \vert,   \lvert,   \rvert,
\Arrowvert
not intended for direct use;
used internally to create stretchy delimiters
  class PUNCT

see also:   \|,   \Vert,   \lVert,   \rVert
\ast
asterisk   class BIN
\asymp
asymptotic   class REL
\atop   general command for making a fraction-like structure, but without the horizontal fraction bar
{ \atop }
Creates a fraction-like structure:
‘numerator’   subformula1
’denominator’   subformula2

There are separate local groups for  subformula1  and  subformula2 ; if these local groups are not explicit, then unexpected results may occur, as illustrated in the choose discussion.

مثال ها :
a \atop b نمایش می دهد abab
a+1 \atop b+2 نمایش می دهد a+1b+2a+1b+2
{a+1 \atop b+2}+c نمایش می دهد a+1b+2+ca+1b+2+c
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\atopwithdelims   general command for making a fraction-like structure, but without the horizontal fraction bar;
specifies left and right enclosing delimiters
{ \atopwithdelims }
Creates a fraction-like structure:
‘numerator’   subformula1
‘denominator’   subformula2
delim1   is put before the structure
delim2   is put after the structure
For an empty delimiter, use ‘.’ in place of the delimiter.

There are separate local groups for  subformula1  and  subformula2 ; if these local groups are not explicit, then unexpected results may occur, as illustrated in the choose discussion.

مثال ها :
a \atopwithdelims [ ] b نمایش می دهد [ab][ab]
a+1 \atopwithdelims . | b+2 نمایش می دهد a+1b+2a+1b+2|
{a+1 \atopwithdelims \{ \} b+2}+c نمایش می دهد {a+1b+2}+c{a+1b+2}+c
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims

B
\backepsilon AMSsymbols
    class REL
\backprime AMSsymbols
see also:   \prime   class ORD
\backsim AMSsymbols
    class REL
\backsimeq AMSsymbols
    class REL
\backslash
see also:   \setminus
\bar ¯¯
bar accent (non-stretchy) ˉ
\bar #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, bar is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\bar x نمایش می دهد ¯x
\bar X نمایش می دهد ¯X
\bar xy نمایش می دهد ¯xyx¯y
\bar{xy} نمایش می دهد ¯xyxy¯
\barwedge AMSsymbols
    class BIN
\Bbb  
blackboard-bold for uppercase letters and lowercase ‘k’;
if lowercase blackboard-bold letters are not available, then they are typeset in a roman font
class ORD
\Bbb #1
Whether lower-case letters are displayed in blackboard-bold, or not, depends on the fonts being used.
The MathJax web-based fonts don't have lowercase blackboard-bold, but the STIX fonts do;
so users with the STIX fonts installed will be able to display lowercase blackboard-bold letters.

مثال ها :
\Bbb R نمایش می دهد RR
\Bbb ZR نمایش می دهد ZRZR
\Bbb{AaBbKk}Cc نمایش می دهد AaBbKkCcAaBbKkCc
\Bbb{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

see also:   \mathbb
\Bbbk AMSsymbols
kk
blackboard-bold lowercase k k   class ORD
\because AMSsymbols
    class REL
\begin   used in   \begin{xxx} ... \end{xxx}   environments
\beta ββ
lowercase Greek letter beta β   class ORD
\beth AMSsymbols
Hebrew letter beth   class ORD
\between AMSsymbols
    class REL
\bf  
turns on boldface;  affects uppercase and lowercase letters, and digits class ORD
{\bf ... }
مثال ها :
\bf AaBb\alpha\beta123 نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
{\bf A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\bf AB \rm CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
\bf{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \mathbf,   \boldsymbol
\Bigg
\bigg
\Big
\big
  used to obtain various-sized delimiters;
may be followed by any of these Variable-Sized Delimiters

مثال ها :
[[ [[ [[ [[ [[
\Bigg[ \bigg[ \Big[ \big[ [
2.470 em 2.047 em 1.623 em 1.2 em  
\Biggl \Biggm \Biggr
\biggl \biggm \biggr
\Bigl \Bigm \Bigl
\bigl \bigm \bigr
  Used to obtain various-sized delimiters, with a left/right/middle context;
may be followed by any of these Variable-Sized Delimiters.

The ‘l’ (left), ’m’ (middle), and ‘r’ (right) specifications
may make reading the source code more meaningful,
especially when there are delimiters inside delimiters.

Whereas (say)  \Bigg  produces results of class ORD, we have:
  •  \Biggl  produces results of class OPEN
  •  \Biggr  produces results of class CLOSE
  •  \Biggm  produces results of class REL
The spacing for these differ (but may not always be apparent, as it depends on the class of what is next to it).
For example,  $x\big| y$  (xyx|y) has less space than  $x\bigm| y$  (xyx|y).
Therefore, these commands affect typeset results in a fundamental way;
it is best to use the form appropriate for the position of the desired delimiter.
\bigcap
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\bigcirc
    class BIN
\bigcup
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\bigodot
\bigoplus
\bigotimes
all change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
  class OP
  class OP
\bigsqcup
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\bigstar AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\bigtriangledown
    class BIN
\bigtriangleup
    class REL
\biguplus
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\bigvee
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\bigwedge
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\binom AMSmath
  notation commonly used for binomial coefficients
\binom #1 #2
مثال ها :
\binom n k نمایش می دهد (inline mode) (nk)(nk)
\binom n k نمایش می دهد (display mode) (nk)(nk)
\binom{n-1}k-1 نمایش می دهد (n1k)1(n−1k)−1
\binom{n-1}{k-1} نمایش می دهد (n1k1)(n−1k−1)
see also:   \binom,   \choose,   \dbinom,   \tbinom
\blacklozenge AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\blacksquare AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\blacktriangle
\blacktriangledown
both AMSsymbols
  class ORD
  class ORD
\blacktriangleleft
\blacktriangleright
both AMSsymbols
  class BIN
  class BIN
\bmod modmod
properly spaced as a binary operator class BIN
\boldsymbol  
as opposed to  \bf  and  \mathbf ,
\boldsymbol  applies to nearly all symbols, not just letters and numbers
class ORD
\boldsymbol #1
مثال ها :
\boldsymbol aa نمایش می دهد aaaa
\boldsymbol \alpha\alpha نمایش می دهد αααα
\boldsymbol{a\alpha}a\alpha نمایش می دهد aαaαaαaα
\boldsymbol{a+2+\alpha+\frac{x+3}{\beta+4}} نمایش می دهد a+2+α+x+3β+4a+2+α+x+3β+4
\mathbf{a+2+\alpha+\frac{x+3}{\beta+4}} نمایش می دهد a+2+α+x+3β+4a+2+α+x+3β+4
see also:   \bf,   \mathbf
\bot
    class ORD
\bowtie
    class REL
\Box AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\boxdot AMSsymbols
    class BIN
\boxed AMSmath
  puts a box around argument; argument is in math mode
\boxed #1
مثال ها :
\boxed ab نمایش می دهد abab
\boxed{ab} نمایش می دهد abab
\boxed{ab\strut} نمایش می دهد abab
\boxed{\text{boxed text}} نمایش می دهد boxed textboxed text
see also:   \fbox
\boxminus AMSsymbols
\boxplus AMSsymbols
\boxtimes AMSsymbols
  class BIN
  class BIN
  class BIN
\brace   creates a braced structure
{ \brace }
مثال ها :
\brace نمایش می دهد {}{}
a\brace b نمایش می دهد {ab}{ab}
a+b+c\brace d+e+f نمایش می دهد {a+b+cd+e+f}{a+b+cd+e+f}
a+{b+c\brace d+e}+f نمایش می دهد a+{b+cd+e}+fa+{b+cd+e}+f
\bracevert  
not intended for direct use;
used internally to create stretchy delimiters
  class ORD
\brack   creates a bracketed structure
{ \brack }
مثال ها :
\brack نمایش می دهد [][]
a\brack b نمایش می دهد [ab][ab]
a+b+c\brack d+e+f نمایش می دهد [a+b+cd+e+f][a+b+cd+e+f]
a+{b+c\brack d+e}+f نمایش می دهد a+[b+cd+e]+fa+[b+cd+e]+f
\breve ˘˘
breve accent ˘
\breve #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\breve e نمایش می دهد ˘e
\breve E نمایش می دهد ˘E
\breve eu نمایش می دهد ˘eue˘u
\breve{eu} نمایش می دهد ˘eueu˘
\buildrel ... \over ...  
\buildrel \over #1
The result is of class  REL  (binary relation), so it has the spacing of a relation.

مثال ها :
\buildrel \alpha\beta \over \longrightarrow نمایش می دهد αβ⟶αβ
\buildrel \rm def \over {:=} نمایش می دهد def:=:=def
\bullet
    class BIN
\Bumpeq AMSsymbols
\bumpeq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL

C
\cal   class ORD
turns on calligraphic mode;  only affects uppercase letters and digits
{\cal ... }
مثال ها :
\cal ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\cal 0123456789 نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\cal abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
{\cal AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\cal AB \rm AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\cal{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \oldstyle,   \mathcal
\cancel   Used to ‘cancel’ (strikeout).
\cancel #1
\bcancel #1
مثال ها :
\frac{(x+1)\cancel{(x+2)}}{3\cancel{(x+2)}} نمایش می دهد (x+1)(x+2)3(x+2)(x+1)(x+2)3(x+2)
\frac{\bcancel{\frac13}}{\bcancel{\frac13}} = 1 نمایش می دهد 1313=11313=1
\Cap AMSsymbols
  class BIN

see also:  \bigcap,   \cap,   \Cup,   \cup,   \doublecap,  \doublecup
\cap   class BIN

see also:  \bigcap,  \Cap,   \Cup,   \cup,   \doublecap,  \doublecup
\cases   class OPEN
for piecewise-defined functions
\cases{ & \cr }
a double-backslash can be used in place of   \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

In TEXTEX, the second column is automatically in text-mode, while in MathJax it is in math-mode.
This behavior will be changed to be consistent with TEXTEX in a future release of MathJax.

مثال :
|x| = 
\cases{
x  & \text{if } x\ge 0\cr
-x & \text{if } x\lt 0
}
نمایش می دهد |x|={xif x0xif x<0|x|={xif x≥0−xif x<0
\cdot   class BIN
centered dot

مثال ها :
a\cdot b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
a\cdotp b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
a\centerdot b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
see also:   \cdotp,   \cdots,   \centerdot
\cdotp   class PUNCT
centered dot, punctuation symbol

مثال ها :
\rm s \cdot h نمایش می دهد shs⋅h
\rm s \cdotp h نمایش می دهد shs⋅h
see also:   \cdot,   \centerdot
\cdots   class INNER
centered dots;   dot dot dot

مثال :
x_1 + \cdots + x_n   نمایش می دهد   x1++xnx1+⋯+xn

see also:   \dots,   \ldots
\centerdot AMSsymbols
  class BIN
centered dot

مثال ها :
a\cdot b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
a\cdotp b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
a\centerdot b نمایش می دهد aba⋅b
see also:   \cdot,   \cdotp
\cfrac AMSmath
  use for continued fractions
\cfrac #1 #2
مثال ها :
\frac{2}{1+\frac{2}{1+\frac{2}{1}}} نمایش می دهد 21+21+2121+21+21
\cfrac{2}{1+\cfrac{2}{1+\cfrac{2}{1}}} نمایش می دهد 21+21+2121+21+21
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\check ˇˇ ˇ
check accent
\check #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\check o نمایش می دهد ˇo
\check O نمایش می دهد ˇO
\check oe نمایش می دهد ˇoeoˇe
\check{oe} نمایش می دهد ˇoeoeˇ
\checkmark AMSsymbols
#x2713;   class ORD
\chi χχ χ   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter chi
\choose   notation commonly used for binomial coefficients;
different versions for inline and display modes
{ \choose }
There are separate local groups for  subformula1  and  subformula2 ;
if these local groups are not explicit, then unexpected results may occur, as illustrated next.

مثال ها (showing the math delimiters):
$\displaystyle
n+1
\choose
k+2
$
نمایش می دهد (n+1k+2)(n+1k+2) Without an explicit braced group, the local group for  subformula1  extends back to the opening math delimiter.
That is, this code is interpreted as (color added for emphasis):${\displaystyle n+1}\choose{k+2}$
Now it is clear that only the  n+1  is affected by the  \displaystyle  switch.
$\displaystyle
{n+1
\choose
k+2}
$
نمایش می دهد (n+1k+2)(n+1k+2) Here, an explicit braced group is used for the  \choose  command, making both subformulas clear—and the expected result is obtained.
Note that it may appear that  \displaystyle  is taking an argument, but this is not the case: instead,  \displaystyle  acts as a switch which turns on display mode, and the entire  choose  command is affected.
مثال ها (showing math delimiters):
$n+1 \choose k+2$ نمایش می دهد (n+1k+2)(n+1k+2)
$$n+1 \choose k+2$$ نمایش می دهد (n+1k+2)(n+1k+2)
$1+{n \choose 2}+k$ نمایش می دهد 1+(n2)+k1+(n2)+k
see also:   \binom,   \dbinom,   \tbinom
\circ   class BIN

مثال ها :
 
(f\circ g)(x) = f(g(x)) نمایش می دهد (fg)(x)=f(g(x))(f∘g)(x)=f(g(x))
45^\circ نمایش می دهد 4545∘
\circeq AMSsymbols
  class REL
\circlearrowleft AMSsymbols
\circlearrowright AMSsymbols
counterclockwise class REL
clockwise class REL
\circledast AMSsymbols
\circledcirc AMSsymbols
\circleddash AMSsymbols
circled asterisk class BIN
circled circle class BIN
circled dash class BIN
\circledR AMSsymbols
\circledS AMSsymbols
®®
® circled R class ORD
circled S class ORD
\class [HTML]
  non-standard; extension is loaded automatically when used;
used to specify a CSS class for styling mathematics
\class #1 #2
where:
  • #1  is a CSS class name (without quotes)
  • #2  is the mathematics to be styled
مثال :
Suppose this CSS style information is provided outside of math mode:

Then,
ab\class{smHighlightRed}{cdef}gh نمایش می دهد abcdefghabcdefgh
\clubsuit   class ORD
see also:   \diamondsuit,   \heartsuit,   \spadesuit
\colon :: :   class PUNCT
a colon, treated as a punctuation mark (instead of a relation)

مثال ها :
f:A\to B نمایش می دهد f:ABf:A→B
f\colon A\to B نمایش می دهد f:ABf:A→B
\color    used to specify a color in mathematics
\color #1 #2
where:
#1   is the desired color
#2   is the mathematics to be colored

This works differently from standard LATEXLATEX (where  \color  is a switch).
In a future version of MathJax, it will be possible to load an extension to make the command behave like the LATEXLATEX version.

مثال ها :
\color{red}{ \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2} } نمایش می دهد 1+521+52
\color{#0000FF}AB نمایش می دهد ABAB
\complement AMSsymbols
  class ORD
\cong   class REL
congruent

see also:   \ncong
\coprod   class OP
coproduct
\cos coscos class OP
cosine;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها

مثال ها :
\cos x نمایش می دهد cosxcos⁡x
\cos(2x-1) نمایش می دهد cos(2x1)cos⁡(2x−1)

see also:   \sin
\cosh coshcosh class OP
hyperbolic cosine;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
hyperbolic cosine

مثال ها :
\cosh x نمایش می دهد coshxcosh⁡x
\cosh(2x-1) نمایش می دهد cosh(2x1)cosh⁡(2x−1)

see also:   \sinh
\cot cotcot class OP
cotangent;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها

مثال ها :
\cot x نمایش می دهد cotxcot⁡x
\cot(2x-1) نمایش می دهد cot(2x1)cot⁡(2x−1)
see also:   \tan
\coth cothcoth class OP
hyperbolic cotangent;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها

مثال ها :
\coth x نمایش می دهد cothxcoth⁡x
\coth(2x-1) نمایش می دهد coth(2x1)coth⁡(2x−1)
\cr   carriage return;
line separator in alignment modes and environments

in MathJax, these are essentially the same:   \\,   \newline
\csc csccsc class OP
cosecant
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها

مثال ها :
\csc x نمایش می دهد cscxcsc⁡x
\csc(2x-1) نمایش می دهد csc(2x1)csc⁡(2x−1)
see also:   \sec
\cssId [HTML]
  non-standard;   class ORD;   extension is loaded automatically when used;
used to set a MathML element's ID attribute, so it can be accessed dynamically
(e.g., to add an event handler, add CSS styling, or set display status)
\cssId #1 #2
where:
  • #1  is an ID attribute (without quotes)
  • #2  is the mathematics to be identified by the ID
مثال :

Suppose this HTML and Javascript is provided outside of math mode:



Suppose further that the following MathJax code is provided:
$$
abc
\cssId{testID}{def\text{ Something will turn red! }ghi}
jkl
$$
Then, this HTML/Javascript/MathJax produces:

Click button to turn something red
abcdef Something will turn red! ghijklabcdef Something will turn red! ghijklA more meaningful example (with well-commented source code) is provided by Design Science, Inc.,
and shows how you can display the steps in a proof one line at a time.
\Cup AMSsymbols
  class BIN

see also:   \bigcup,   \Cap,   \cap,   \cup,   \doublecap,  \doublecup
\cup   class BIN

see also:   \bigcup,   \Cap,   \cap,   \Cup,   \doublecap,  \doublecup
\curlyeqprec AMSsymbols
\curlyeqsucc AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
\curlyvee AMSsymbols
\curlywedge AMSsymbols
class BIN
class BIN
\curvearrowleft AMSsymbols
\curvearrowright AMSsymbols
counterclockwise class REL
clockwise class REL

D
\dagger
\ddagger
dagger class BIN
double dagger class BIN
\daleth AMSsymbols
  class ORD
Hebrew letter daleth
\dashleftarrow AMSsymbols
\dashrightarrow AMSsymbols
dashed left arrow; non-stretchy class REL
dashed right arrow; non-stretchy class REL
\dashv   class REL
\dbinom AMSmath
  notation commonly used for binomial coefficients;
display version (in both inline and display modes)
\dbinom #1 #2
مثال ها :
\dbinom n k نمایش می دهد (inline mode) (nk)(nk)
\dbinom n k نمایش می دهد (display mode) (nk)(nk)
\dbinom{n-1}k-1 نمایش می دهد (n1k)1(n−1k)−1
\dbinom{n-1}{k-1} نمایش می دهد (n1k1)(n−1k−1)
see also:   \binom,   \choose,   \tbinom
\dot  
\ddot  
\dddot AMSmath
\ddddot AMSmath
˙˙
¨¨
...
....
˙ dot accent
¨ double dot accent
triple dot accent
quadruple dot accent
\dot #1
\ddot #1
\dddot #1
\ddddot #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\dot x نمایش می دهد ˙x
\ddot x نمایش می دهد ¨x
\dddot x نمایش می دهد ...xx⃛
\ddddot x نمایش می دهد ....xx⃜
\ddot x(t) نمایش می دهد ¨x(t)x¨(t)
\ddddot{y(x)} نمایش می دهد ....y(x)y(x)⃜
\ddots   class INNER
three diagonal dots
\DeclareMathOperator AMSmath
  Multi-letter operator names (like loglog, sinsin, and limlim) are traditionally typeset in a roman font.
\DeclareMathOperator  allows you to define your own operator names;
they are subsequently typeset using the proper font and spacing;
you can control the way that limits appear (see مثال ها below)
\DeclareMathOperator #1 #2
where:
  • #1  is the operator name, including the preceding backslash;
    only letters a–z and A–Z are allowed;
    in particular, no numbers are allowed in operator names
  • #2  is the replacement text for the operator name
A named operator is available in any mathematics that appears after it is defined on the page.

مثال ها :
myOp(x) نمایش می دهد myOp(x)myOp(x) poor style; the function name should appear in a roman font
\text{myOp}(x) نمایش می دهد myOp(x)myOp(x) better; a nuisance to type if used frequently
\DeclareMathOperator
  {\myOp}{myOp}
\myOp(x)
نمایش می دهد myOp(x)myOp⁡(x) best; once an operator is declared, it can be used in any subsequent mathematics
\myOp_a^b(x) نمایش می دهد (inline mode) myOpba(x)myOpab⁡(x) standard subscript and superscript position for inline mode
\myOp_a^b(x) نمایش می دهد (display mode) myOpba(x)myOpab⁡(x) standard subscript and superscript position for display mode
\DeclareMathOperator*
{\myOP}{myOP}
\myOP_a^b(x)
نمایش می دهد (inline mode) myOPba(x)myOPab⁡(x) operator names are case-sensitive, so  \myOp  is different from  \myOP ;
if displaystyle limits are desired in both inline and display modes, then use DeclareMathOperator*  instead of DeclareMathOperator
\def   for defining your own commands (control sequences, macros, definitions);
must appear (within math delimiters) before it is used;
alternatively, you can define macros using the MathJax configuration options in the  
\def\myCommandName{ }
مثال :
\def\myHearts{\color{purple}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{green}{\heartsuit}}
\myHearts\myHearts
نمایش می دهد: ♡♡♡♡

A definition may take one or more arguments:

مثال :
\def\myHearts#1#2{\color{#1}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{#2}{\heartsuit}}
\myHearts{red}{blue}
نمایش می دهد: ♡♡

see also:   \newcommand
\deg degdeg class OP
degree;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
\Delta
\delta
ΔΔ
δδ
Δ uppercase Greek letter delta class ORD
δ lowercase Greek letter delta class ORD
see also:   \varDelta
\det detdet class OP
determinant;
does not change size;
default limit placement can be changed using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
does not change size;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
مثال ها :
\det_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) detsubdetsub
\det_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (display mode) detsubdetsub
\det\limits_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) detsubdetsub
\det\nolimits_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (display mode) detsubdetsub
\dfrac AMSmath
  fractions;
display version (in both inline and display modes)
\dfrac #1 #2
مثال ها :
\dfrac a b نمایش می دهد (inline mode) abab
\dfrac a b نمایش می دهد (display mode) abab
\frac a b نمایش می دهد (inline mode) abab
\dfrac{a-1}b-1 نمایش می دهد a1b1a−1b−1
\dfrac{a-1}{b-1} نمایش می دهد a1b1a−1b−1
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\diagdown AMSsymbols
\diagup AMSsymbols
diagonal down (from left to right) class ORD
diagonal up (from left to right) class ORD
\Diamond AMSsymbols
\diamond  
large diamond class ORD
small diamond class BIN
\diamondsuit   class ORD

see also:   \clubsuit,   \heartsuit,   \spadesuit
\digamma AMSsymbols
ϝϝ ϝ   class ORD
\dim dimdim class OP
dimension;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
\displaylines   to display any number of centered formulas (without any alignment)
\displaylines{ \cr }
a double-backslash can be used in place of the \cr;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

مثال :
\displaylines{
a = a\\
\text{if } a=b \text{ then } b=a\\
\text{if } a=b \text{ and } b=c \text{ then } a=c
}
نمایش می دهد a=aif a=b then b=aif a=b and b=c then a=ca=aif a=b then b=aif a=b and b=c then a=c
see also:   gather
\displaystyle   class ORD
used to over-ride automatic style rules and force display style;
stays in force until the end of math mode or the braced group, or until another style is selected
{ \displaystyle ... }
مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab+\displaystyle\frac ab+\textstyle\frac ab
+\scriptstyle\frac ab+\scriptscriptstyle\frac ab

نمایش می دهد:
ab+ab+ab+ab+abab+ab+ab+ab+ab

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + {\displaystyle \frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + \displaystyle{\frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

see also:   \textstyle,   \scriptstyle,   \scriptscriptstyle
\div ÷÷ ÷   class BIN
division symbol
\divideontimes AMSsymbols
  class BIN
\Doteq AMSsymbols
\doteq  
class REL
class REL
\dotplus AMSsymbols
  class BIN
\dots   class INNER
lower dots;   ellipsis;   ellipses;   dot dot dot

In LATEXLATEX,  \dots  chooses either  \cdots  or  \ldots  depending on the context;
MathJax, however, always gives lower dots.

مثال ها :
x_1, \dots, x_n نمایش می دهد x1,,xnx1,…,xn
x_1 + \dots + x_n نمایش می دهد x1++xnx1+⋯+xn
x_1 + \dotsb + x_n نمایش می دهد x1++xnx1+⋯+xn
x_1 + \cdots + x_n نمایش می دهد x1++xnx1+⋯+xn

see also:   \cdots,   \ldots,   \dotsb,   \dotsc,   \dotsi,   \dotsm,   \dotso
\dotsb
\dotsc
\dotsi
\dotsm
\dotso
 
\dotsb class INNER dots with binary operations and relations x1+x2++xnx1+x2+⋯+xn
\dotsc class INNER dots with commas x1,x2,,xnx1,x2,…,xn
\dotsi class INNER dots with integrals A1A2An∫A1∫A2⋯∫An
\dotsm class INNER dots with multiplication x1x2xnx1x2⋯xn
\dotso class INNER other dots A1AnA1…An

see also:   \cdots,   \dots,   \ldots
\doublebarwedge AMSsymbols
  BIN
\doublecap AMSsymbols
\doublecup AMSsymbols
class BIN
class BIN

see also:   \Cap,   \Cup,   \cap,   \cup
\downarrow
\Downarrow
down arrow; non-stretchy class REL
double down arrow; non-stretchy class REL
\downdownarrows AMSsymbols
  class REL
down down arrows; non-stretchy
\downharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\downharpoonright AMSsymbols
down harpoon left; non-stretchy class REL
down harpoon right; non-stretchy class REL
see also:   \leftharpoondown,   \leftharpoonup

E
\ell   class ORD
\emptyset   class ORD
empty set

see also:   \varnothing
\end   used in   \begin{xxx} ... \end{xxx}   environments
\enspace   \enspace   is a 0.5em space

مثال :
|\enspace|\enspace| نمایش می دهد ||||||
\epsilon ϵϵ ϵ   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter epsilon

see also:   \varepsilon
\eqalign   equation alignment;
for aligning multi-line displays at a single place
\eqalign{ & \cr }
the ampersand is placed where alignment is desired;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional;
supports only a single \tag, which is vertically centered

مثال :
\eqalign{
3x - 4y &= 5\cr
x  +  7 &= -2y
}
نمایش می دهد:3x4y=5x+7=2y3x−4y=5x+7=−2yمثال :
A    component may be empty:
\eqalign{
(a+b)^2 &= (a+b)(a+b) \\
        &= a^2 + ab + ba + b^2 \\
        &= a^2 + 2ab + b^2
}
نمایش می دهد:(a+b)2=(a+b)(a+b)=a2+ab+ba+b2=a2+2ab+b2(a+b)2=(a+b)(a+b)=a2+ab+ba+b2=a2+2ab+b2مثال :
The result of \eqalign is a vertically-centered block;
you can use more than one in the same display:
\left\{
\eqalign{
a &= 1\\
b &= 2\\
c &= 3
}\right\}
\qquad
\eqalign{
ax + by &= c \\
 x + 2y &= 3
 }
نمایش می دهد:a=1b=2c=3ax+by=cx+2y=3{a=1b=2c=3}ax+by=cx+2y=3see also:   \eqalignno,   the align environment,   \tag
\eqalignno   equation alignment with optionally numbered (tagged) lines
\eqalignno{ & & \cr }
the first ampersand is placed where alignment is desired;
the second ampersand is used just before a tag;
if there is no tag, then the final   &   is omitted;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

مثال :
\eqalignno{
3x - 4y &= 5   &(\dagger) \cr
x  +  7 &= -2y &(\ddagger)\cr
      z &= 2
}
نمایش می دهد:3x4y=5x+7=2yz=2()()(†)3x−4y=5(‡)x+7=−2yz=2see also:   \eqalign,   \leqalignno,   the align environment
\eqcirc AMSsymbols
  class REL
\eqsim AMSsymbols
  class REL
\eqslantgtr AMSsymbols
\eqslantless AMSsymbols
&##x2A96; class REL
&##x2A95; class REL
\equiv   class REL
Error Messages;
page processing log
  When you're working with a MathJax page, you may want to see the log of messages generated during page processing (particularly if something has gone wrong).
To do this, type
javascript:alert(MathJax.Message.Log())
in the browser's location URL box, and then refresh the page.
If the alert box is too big to see the close button, just press ‘enter’ to close the alert box.
\eta ηη η   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter eta
\eth AMSsymbols
ðð ð   class ORD
\exists   class ORD
there exists

see also:   \nexists
\exp expexp class OP
exponential function;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

F
\fallingdotseq AMSsymbols
  class REL
falling dot sequence;

see also:   \risingdotseq
\fbox   puts a box around argument; argument is in text mode
equivalent to: \boxed{\text{#1}}
\fbox #1
where #1 is rendered as text

مثال ها :
\boxed{Hi there!} نمایش می دهد Hithere!Hithere!
\fbox{Hi there!} نمایش می دهد Hi there!Hi there!
see also:   \boxed
\Finv AMSsymbols
  class ORD
\flat   class ORD
musical flat symbol

see also:   \natural,   \sharp
\forall   class ORD
universal quantifier; for all; for every; for each
\frac AMSmath
  fractions;
displays differently in inline and display modes
\frac #1 #2
مثال ها :
\frac a b نمایش می دهد (inline mode) abab
\frac a b نمایش می دهد (display mode) abab
\frac{a-1}b-1 نمایش می دهد a1b1a−1b−1
\frac{a-1}{b-1} نمایش می دهد a1b1a−1b−1
see also:   \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \genfrac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\frak   class ORD
turns on fraktur;  affects uppercase and lowercase letters, and digits
{\frak ... }
مثال ها :
\frak ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\frak 0123456789 نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\frak abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
{\frak AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\frak AB \rm AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
{\frak AB \cal AB} AB نمایش می دهد ABABABABABAB

see also:   \mathfrak
\frown   class REL

see also:   \smallfrown,   \smallsmile,   \smile

G
\Game AMSsymbols
  class ORD
\Gamma ΓΓ Γ   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter gamma

see also:   \varGamma
\gamma γγ γ   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter gamma
\gcd gcdgcd class OP
greatest common divisor;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

مثال ها :
\gcd_{\rm sub}^{\rm sup} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) gcdsupsubgcdsubsup
\gcd_{\rm sub}^{\rm sup} نمایش می دهد (display mode) supgcdsubgcdsubsup
\ge  
\geq  
\geqq AMSsymbols
\geqslant AMSsymbols
≥   \ge
≥   \geq
≧   \geqq
⩾   \geqslant
all class REL
greater than or equal to

see also:   \ngeq,   \ngeqq,   \ngeqslant
\genfrac AMSmath
  the most general command for defining fractions with optional delimiters, line thickness, and specified style
\genfrac #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6
where:
  • #1 is the left delimiter (empty, for no left delimiter)
  • #2 is the right delimiter (empty, for no right delimiter)
  • #3 is the fraction bar thickness (set to 0pt to make it disappear)
  • #4 is either 0, 1, 2, or 3, where:
    • 0 denotes \displaystyle
    • 1 denotes \textstyle
    • 2 denotes \scriptstyle
    • 3 denotes \scriptscriptstyle
  • #5 is the numerator
  • #6 is the denominator
مثال :
\genfrac(]{0pt}{2}{a+b}{c+d} نمایش می دهد (a+bc+d](a+bc+d]

see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \over,   \overwithdelims
\gets   class REL
left arrow;
non-stretchy
\gg   class REL
\ggg AMSsymbols
\gggtr AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
\gimel AMSsymbols
  class ORD
Hebrew letter gimel
\gtrapprox AMSsymbols
\gnapprox AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
\gneq AMSsymbols
\gneqq AMSsymbols
\gvertneqq AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
class REL
\gtrsim AMSsymbols
\gnsim AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
\grave `` ˋ
grave accent
\grave #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\grave e نمایش می دهد `ee`
\grave E نمایش می دهد `EE`
\grave eu نمایش می دهد `eue`u
\grave{eu} نمایش می دهد `eueu`
\gt >> >   class REL
greater than

see also:   \ngtr
\gtrdot AMSsymbols
  class REL
\gtreqless AMSsymbols
\gtreqqless AMSsymbols
class REL
class REL
\gtrless AMSsymbols
  class REL

H
\hat ^^ ˊ
non-stretchy hat accent
\hat #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\hat\imath نمایش می دهد ^ıı^
\hat\jmath نمایش می دهد ^ȷȷ^
\hat ab نمایش می دهد ^aba^b
\hat{ab} نمایش می دهد ^abab^

see also:   \widehat
\hbar   class ORD
Planck's constant
\hbox   class ORD
horizontal box;
contents are treated as text, but you can switch to math mode inside;
text appears in  \rm 
\hbox #1
مثال ها :
 
\hbox{\alpha a }\alpha a نمایش می دهد \alpha a αa\alpha a αa
\hbox{This is a sentence.} نمایش می دهد This is a sentence.This is a sentence.
\hbox{for all $x > 0$} نمایش می دهد for all x>0for all x>0

in MathJax, these are essentially the same:   \text,   \mbox
see also:   \rm
\hdashline
\hline
  works in many of the environments to create a horizontal line (\hline), or a horizontal dashed line (\hdashline)

Putting   \hdashline   or   \hline   first or last encases the entire structure
(which is different from standard LATEXLATEX behavior):
\begin{matrix}
\hdashline
x_{11} & x_{12} \\
x_{21} & x_{22} \\
x_{31} & x_{32}
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد x11x12x21x22x31x32x11x12x21x22x31x32
\begin{matrix}
x_{11} & x_{12} \\
x_{21} & x_{22} \\
x_{31} & x_{32} \\
\hline
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد x11x12x21x22x31x32x11x12x21x22x31x32
Putting   \hdashline   or   \hline   at the beginning of any subsequent row puts a line over that row:
\begin{matrix}
x_{11} & x_{12} \\
x_{21} & x_{22} \\
\hline
x_{31} & x_{32}
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد x11x12x21x22x31x32x11x12x21x22x31x32
You can combine effects, and put in struts (as desired) for additional vertical spacing:
\begin{matrix}
\hline
x_{11} & x_{12} \\
x_{21} & x_{22} \strut \\
\hdashline
x_{31} & x_{32} \strut
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد x11x12x21x22x31x32x11x12x21x22x31x32
\heartsuit   class ORD

see also:   \clubsuit,   \diamondsuit,   \spadesuit
\hfil
\hfill
  horizontal glue; horizontal fill (added in MathJax 2.5);
can be used to set horizontal alignment in matrices and arrays (as in old-fashioned TEXTEX layout);
it ‘expands’ to fill available horizontal space, pushing contents on right or left to the boundary

مثال :
\begin{matrix}
xxxxxx & xxxxxx & xxxxxx \cr
ab & \hfil ab & ab\hfil\cr
\end{matrix}
نمایش می دهد

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxabababxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxababab

see also:   \hskip,   \hspace,   \kern,   \mkern,   \mskip,   \mspace
\hom homhom class OP
homomorphism;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
\hookleftarrow
\hookrightarrow
non-stretchy
non-stretchy
both class REL
\hphantom   class ORD
horizontal phantom

Sometimes you want to pretend that something is there, for spacing reasons,
but you don't want it to appear—you want it to be invisible—you want it to be a phantom.

The box created by   \hphantom   has the width of its argument,
but its height and depth are zero (so it doesn't contribute to any vertical spacing issues).
In other words, \hphantom   creates horizontal space equal to that produced by its argument,
but doesn't create any vertical space.
\hphantom #1
مثال :
\begin{array}{l}
\text{Side Angle Side}\\
\text{S}\hphantom{\text{ide }}\text{A}\hphantom{\text{ngle }}\text{S}
\end{array}
نمایش می دهد

Side Angle SideSASSide Angle SideSide Angle S

see also:   \phantom,   \vphantom
\href   used to make a math object into a link
\href{ } #1
where the argument (#1) is the clickable area

مثال :
\href{http://www.onemathematicalcat.org}{M^{A^{T^H}}} نمایش می دهد MATHMATH
\hskip   horizontal glue; horizontal space; horizontal skipping;
\hskip <dimen>
مثال :
w\hskip1em i\hskip2em d\hskip3em e\hskip4em r
نمایش می دهد

widerwider

in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hspace,   \kern,   \mkern,   \mskip,   \mspace
\hslash AMSsymbols
  class ORD
perhaps an alternative form of Planck's constant
\hspace   horizontal glue; horizontal space; horizontal skipping
\hspace <dimen>
مثال :
s\hspace7ex k\hspace6ex i\hspace5ex n\hspace4ex n\hspace3ex i\hspace2ex e\hspace1ex r
نمایش می دهد

skinnierskinnier

in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hskip,   \kern,   \mkern,   \mskip,   \mspace
\Huge
\huge
  both class ORD
turns on huge mode and an even bigger Huge mode
{\Huge ... }
{\huge ... }
مثال ها :
\huge AaBb\alpha\beta123\frac ab\sqrt x نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123abxAaBbαβ123abx
{\huge A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
A\alpha\huge A\alpha \Huge A\alpha نمایش می دهد AαAαAαAαAαAα
see also:   \LARGE, \Large, \large

I
\iddots ......

Not in MathJax Library
inner diagonal dots;

This macro must be supplied by the user, if desired.
Davide Cervone provided the code (given here) in the MathJax User Group.

To use this macro, put the following definition in either inline or display mathematics:
$
\def\iddots{
  {\kern3mu\raise1mu{.}\kern3mu\raise6mu{.}\kern3mu\raise12mu{.}}}
$ 
Then, in any subsequent mathematics:
 
\iddots نمایش می دهد ......
Instead of providing the definition inside math delimiters in the body,
you can add the definition to your configuration using the  Macros  property of the  TeX  block:

\idotsint AMSmath
∫⋯∫ class OP
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
\iff   with a thick space on both sides
if and only if;   is equivalent to;
non-stretchy

مثال :
A\iff B   نمایش می دهد   ABA⟺B
\iiiint AMSmath
\iiint  
\iint  
\int  
∬∬
four occurrences of  
all class OP;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

Compare the different limit placements (both in display mode):
\int_a^b نمایش می دهد ba∫ab
\intop_a^b نمایش می دهد ba∫ab
see also:   \intop
\intop  
(with movable limits)   class OP

See the Big Operators Table for مثال ها .

see also:   \iiiint, \iiint, \iint, \int
\Im I   class ORD
\imath ıı ı   class ORD

a dotless ‘i’;
better to use when accented

مثال ها :
\hat i نمایش می دهد ^ii^
\hat\imath نمایش می دهد ^ıı^

see also:   \jmath
\impliedby AMSsymbols
  with a thick space on both sides
non-stretchy

مثال :
P\impliedby Q   نمایش می دهد   PQP⟸Q
\implies AMSsymbols
  with a thick space on both sides
non-stretchy

مثال :
P\implies Q   نمایش می دهد   PQP⟹Q
\in   class REL
is in;   is an element of;   indicates membership in a set;

see also:   \ni,   \notin,   \owns
\inf infinf class OP
infimum;   least upper bound;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

مثال ها :
\inf_{\rm limit} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) inflimitinflimit
\inf_{\rm limit} نمایش می دهد (display mode) inflimitinflimit
see also:   \sup
\infty   class ORD
infinity
\injlim AMSmath
injliminj lim class OP
injective limit;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها

see also:   \varinjlim
\intercal AMSsymbols
  class BIN
\iota ιι ι   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter iota
\it   class ORD
turns on math italic mode;
to return to math italic mode if it had been turned off
{\it ... }
مثال ها :
{\bf ab \it ab} ab نمایش می دهد abababababab
\rm for\ all\ {\it x}\ in\ \Bbb R نمایش می دهد for all x in Rfor all x in R
\Delta\Gamma\Lambda{\it \Delta\Gamma\Lambda} نمایش می دهد ΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛ

see also:   \mathit,   \mit

J
\jmath ȷȷ ȷ   class ORD
a dotless ‘j’;
better to use when accented

مثال ها :
\hat j نمایش می دهد ^jj^
\hat\jmath نمایش می دهد ^ȷȷ^

see also:   \imath
\Join AMSsymbols
  class REL

K
\kappa κκ κ   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter kappa

see also:   \varkappa
\ker kerker class OP
kernel;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
\kern   to get a specified amount of horizontal space;
a negative argument forces ‘backing up’, so items can overlap
\kern <dimen>
مثال ها :
|\kern 2ex|\kern 2em|\kern 2pt| نمایش می دهد ||||||||
\rm I\kern-2.5pt R نمایش می دهد IRIR
in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hskip,   \hspace,   \mkern,   \mskip,   \mspace

L
\Lambda
\lambda
ΛΛ
λλ
uppercase Greek letter lambda Λ   class ORD
lowercase Greek letter lambda λ   class ORD
see also:   \varLambda
\land
logical AND   class BIN
see also:   \lor,   \wedge
\langle
left angle bracket;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class OPEN

مثال :
\left\langle
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rangle
نمایش می دهد abcd⟨abcd⟩
see also:   \rangle
\LARGE
\Large
\large
 
turns on large typestyles; affects all math all class ORD
{\LARGE ... }
{\Large ... }
{\large ... }
مثال ها :
\Large AaBb\alpha\beta123\frac ab نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123abAaBbαβ123ab
{\Large A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
AB \large AB \Large AB \LARGE AB نمایش می دهد ABABABABABABABAB
\Large{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
see also:   \huge, \Huge
\LaTeX LATEXLATEX
the LaTeX logo class ORD

مثال :
\rm\LaTeX   نمایش می دهد   LATEXLATEX

see also:   \TeX
\lbrace {{
left brace:
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
class OPEN

مثال ها :
 
\lbrace \frac ab, c \rbrace نمایش می دهد {ab,c}{ab,c}
\left\lbrace \frac ab, c \right\rbrace نمایش می دهد {ab,c}{ab,c}
see also:   \rbrace,   \{ \}
\lbrack [[
left bracket:
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below);
class OPEN

مثال ها :
 
\lbrack \frac ab, c \rbrack نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]
\left\lbrack \frac ab, c \right\rbrack نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]
see also:   \rbrack,   [ ]
\lceil
left ceiling;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class OPEN

مثال :
\left\lceil
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rceil
نمایش می دهد abcd⌈abcd⌉
see also:   \rceil,   \lfloor,   \rfloor
\ldotp ..
lower dot, punctuation symbol .   class PUNCT

مثال ها :
\rm s \ldotp h نمایش می دهد s.hs.h
\rm s.h نمایش می دهد s.hs.h
see also:   \cdotp
\ldots
lower dots;   ellipsis;   ellipses;   dot dot dot   class INNER

مثال :
x_1,\ldots,x_n   نمایش می دهد   x1,,xnx1,…,xn

see also:   \cdots,   \dots
\le  
\leq  
\leqq AMSsymbols
\leqslant AMSsymbols
less than or equal to   class REL
less than or equal to   class REL
less than or equal to   class REL
less than or equal to   class REL

see also:   \nleq,   \nleqq,   \nleqslant
\leadsto AMSsymbols
    class REL
\left    used for stretchy delimiters;
see the Variable-Sized Delimiters Table for details

مثال ها :
\left( \frac12 \right) نمایش می دهد (12)(12)
\left\updownarrow \phantom{\frac12} \right\Updownarrow نمایش می دهد ↕12⇕

see also:   \right
\leftarrow
\Leftarrow
left arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
left arrow; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \nleftarrow,   \nLeftarrow
\leftarrowtail AMSsymbols
left arrow tail; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \rightarrowtail
\leftharpoondown
\leftharpoonup
left harpoon arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
left harpoon arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
\leftleftarrows AMSsymbols
left left arrows; non-stretchy   class REL
\leftrightarrow
\Leftrightarrow
left right arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
left right arrow; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \nleftrightarrow,   \nLeftrightarrow
\leftrightarrows AMSsymbols
left right arrows; non-stretchy   class REL
\leftrightharpoons AMSsymbols
left right harpoons; non-stretchy   class REL
\leftrightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
left right squiqqle arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
\leftroot   used to fine-tune the placement of the index inside   \sqrt   or   \root   (see مثال ها )
\sqrt[... \leftroot #1 ...]{...}
\root ... \leftroot #1 ... \of {...}
where the argument is a small integer:
a positive integer moves the index to the left;
a negative integer moves the index to the right

مثال ها :
\sqrt[3]{x} نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\sqrt[3\leftroot1]{x} نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 3 \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 3\leftroot{-1} \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 3\leftroot{-1}\uproot2 \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3

see also:   \uproot,   \root
\leftthreetimes AMSsymbols
    class BIN
\leqalignno   equation alignment with optionally numbered (tagged) lines;
in TEXTEX,  \leqalignno  puts the tags on the left, but MathJax doesn't implement this behavior;
currently, tags appear in a column on the right separated from the equations by a fixed amount of space (so they don't work like tags in the AMS math environments);
this may be fixed in a future version of MathJax
\leqalignno{ & & \cr }
the first ampersand is placed where alignment is desired;
the second ampersand is used just before a tag;
if there is no tag, then the final   &   is omitted;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional;
output is the same in both inline and display modes
(except for the amount of vertical space before and after);


مثال :
\leqalignno{
3x - 4y &= 5   &(\dagger) \cr
x  +  7 &= -2y &(\ddagger)\cr
      z &= 2
}
نمایش می دهد:()()3x4y=5x+7=2yz=2(†)3x−4y=5(‡)x+7=−2yz=2see also:   \eqalignno;   the align environment
\lessapprox AMSsymbols
see also:   \lnapprox   class REL
\lessdot AMSsymbols
    class REL
\lesseqgtr AMSsymbols
\lesseqqgtr AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
\lessgtr AMSsymbols
    class REL
\lesssim AMSsymbols
see also:   \lnsim   class REL
\lfloor
left floor;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
  class OPEN

see also:   \rfloor,   \lceil,   \rceil
\lg lglg
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP
\lgroup
left group;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
  class OPEN

مثال :
\left\lgroup
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rgroup
نمایش می دهد ⎪ ⎪ ⎪abcd⎪ ⎪ ⎪⟮abcd⟯
see also:   \rgroup
\lhd AMSsymbols
left-hand diamond   class REL

see also:   \rhd
\lim limlim
limit;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} f(x) = \ell   (inline mode) نمایش می دهد limnf(x)=limn→∞f(x)=ℓ
\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} f(x) = \ell   (display mode) نمایش می دهد limnf(x)=limn→∞f(x)=ℓ
\liminf liminflim inf
limit inferior;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\liminf_{n\rightarrow\infty} x_n = \ell   (inline mode) نمایش می دهد liminfnxn=lim infn→∞xn=ℓ
\liminf_{n\rightarrow\infty}\ x_n = \ell   (display mode) نمایش می دهد liminfn xn=lim infn→∞ xn=ℓ
see also:   \varliminf
\limits   used to set limits above/below any token of class OP;
see the Big Operators table for more information and مثال ها

مثال ها :
 
\int_a^b f(x)\,dx   (inline mode) نمایش می دهد baf(x)dx∫abf(x)dx
\int\limits_a^b f(x)\,dx   (inline mode) نمایش می دهد baf(x)dx∫abf(x)dx
\int_a^b f(x)\,dx   (display mode) نمایش می دهد baf(x)dx∫abf(x)dx
\int\limits_a^b f(x)\,dx   (display mode) نمایش می دهد baf(x)dx∫abf(x)dx
\mathop{x}\limits_0^1 نمایش می دهد 1x0x01
see also:   \nolimits
\limsup limsuplim sup
limit superior;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} x_n   (inline mode) نمایش می دهد limsupnxnlim supn→∞xn
\limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty}\ x_n   (display mode) نمایش می دهد limsupn xnlim supn→∞ xn
see also:   \varlimsup
\ll
  &x226A;   class REL
\llap  
left overlap class ORD
\llap #1
creates a box of width zero;
the argument is then placed just to the left of this zero-width box
(and hence will overlap whatever lies to the left);
proper use of  \llap  and  \rlap  in math expressions is somewhat delicate

مثال ها :
 
a\mathrel{{=}\llap{/}}b نمایش می دهد a=/ba=/b {=} forces the equal to not have REL spacing (since it is not adjacent to ORD's) and \mathrel{} forces the compound symbol (equal with overlapping slash) to be treated as a single REL
a\mathrel{{=}\llap{/\,}}b نمایش می دهد a=/ba=/b the thinspace ‘\,’ improves the spacing
a=\mathrel{\llap{/\,}}b نمایش می دهد a=/ba=/b this works because the spacing between adjacent REL's is zero
see also:   \rlap
\llcorner AMSsymbols
\lrcorner AMSsymbols
lower left corner   class REL
lower right corner   class REL
These are technically delimiters, but MathJax doesn't stretch them like it should.

see also:   \ulcorner,   \urcorner
\Lleftarrow AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL
\lll AMSsymbols
\llless AMSsymbols
    class REL
    class REL
\lmoustache
left moustache;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class OPEN

مثال :
\left\lmoustache
\phantom{\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}}
\right\rmoustache
نمایش می دهد ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎰abcd⎱
see also:   \rmoustache
\ln lnln
natural logarithm;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP
\lnapprox AMSsymbols
see also:   \lessapprox   class REL
\lneq AMSsymbols
\lneqq AMSsymbols
see also:   \leq   class REL
see also:   \leqq   class REL
\lnot ¬¬
logical not ¬   class ORD

see also:   \neg
\lnsim AMSsymbols
see also:   \lesssim   class REL
\log loglog
logarithm;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP
\longleftarrow
\Longleftarrow
\longrightarrow
\Longrightarrow
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\longleftrightarrow
\Longleftrightarrow
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\longmapsto
long maps to   class REL

see also:   \mapsto
\looparrowleft AMSsymbols
\looparrowright AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\lor
logical OR   class BIN

see also:   \land,   \vee
\lower  
\lower <dimen> #1
lowers the argument by the amount specified in <dimen>;
in actual TEXTEX, the argument to  \lower  (and  \raise ) must be an  \hbox ,
but in MathJax it can be any expression (using an \hbox is allowed, but not required)

مثال :
l\lower 2pt {owe} r نمایش می دهد lowerlower
see also:   \raise
\lozenge AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\Lsh AMSsymbols
left shift; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \Rsh
\lt <<
less than <   class REL

see also:   \nless
\ltimes AMSsymbols
see also:   \rtimes   class BIN
\lvert AMSmath
\lVert AMSmath
||
both non-stretchy when used alone;   class OPEN
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   class OPEN

مثال :
\left\lvert\frac{\frac ab}{\frac cd}\right\rvert نمایش می دهد abcd|abcd|
see also:   \rvert,   \rVert,   |,   \|
\lvertneqq AMSsymbols
    class REL

M
\maltese AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\mapsto
maps to; non-stretchy math operator   class REL

see also:   \longmapsto
\mathbb  
blackboard-bold for uppercase letters and lowercase ‘k’;
if lowercase blackboard-bold letters are not available, then they are typeset in a roman font
class ORD
\mathbb #1
Whether lower-case letters are displayed in blackboard-bold, or not, depends on the fonts being used.
The MathJax web-based fonts don't have lowercase blackboard-bold, but the STIX fonts do;
so users with the STIX fonts installed will be able to display lowercase blackboard-bold letters.

مثال ها :
\mathbb R نمایش می دهد RR
\mathbb ZR نمایش می دهد ZRZR
\mathbb{AaBbKk}Cc نمایش می دهد AaBbKkCcAaBbKkCc
\mathbb{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

see also:   \Bbb
\mathbf  
boldface for uppercase and lowercase letters and digits class ORD
\mathbf #1
مثال ها :
\mathbf{AaBb\alpha\beta123} نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
\mathbf ZR نمایش می دهد ZRZR
\mathbf{uvw}xyz نمایش می دهد uvwxyzuvwxyz

see also:   \bf,   \boldsymbol
\mathbin  
gives the correct spacing to make an object into a binary operator;
binary operators have some extra space around them;
creates an element of class BIN
class BIN
\mathbin #1
مثال ها :
a\text{op} b نمایش می دهد aopbaopb
a\mathbin{\text{op}} b نمایش می دهد aopbaopb
a\Diamond b نمایش می دهد aba◊b
a\mathbin{\Diamond}b نمایش می دهد aba◊b
\mathcal  
calligraphic font for uppercase letters and digits class ORD
\mathcal #1
مثال ها :
\mathcal{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\mathcal{0123456789} نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\mathcal{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\mathcal{AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB

see also:   \cal,   \oldstyle
\mathchoice   provides content that is dependent on the current style (display, text, script, or scriptscript);
can be used in defining a macro for general use
\mathchoice #1 #2 #3 #4
where:
  • #1 is rendered when the  \mathchoice  appears in display style
  • #2 is rendered when the  \mathchoice  appears in text style
  • #3 is rendered when the  \mathchoice  appears in script style
  • #4 is rendered when the  \mathchoice  appears in scriptscript style
مثال ها :
\mathchoice{D}{T}{S}{SS}   (in display style) نمایش می دهد DD
\mathchoice{D}{T}{S}{SS}   (in text style) نمایش می دهد TT
\mathchoice{D}{T}{S}{SS}   (in script style) نمایش می دهد SS
\mathchoice{D}{T}{S}{SS}   (in scriptscript style) نمایش می دهد SSSS
Here's a nice example from the TEXTEXBook:
Define:
\def\puzzle{\mathchoice{D}{T}{S}{SS}}
Then:
\puzzle{\puzzle\over\puzzle^{\puzzle^\puzzle}} نمایش می دهد (in display mode) DTTSSSDTTSSS
\puzzle{\puzzle\over\puzzle^{\puzzle^\puzzle}} نمایش می دهد (in inline mode) TSSSSSSTSSSSSS
\mathclose  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘closing’ class;   for example, like ‘))’ and ‘]]’;
creates an element of class CLOSE
class CLOSE
\mathclose #1
مثال ها :
a + \lt b\gt + c نمایش می دهد a+<b>+ca++c
a + \mathopen\lt b\mathclose\gt + c نمایش می دهد a+<b>+ca++c

see also:   \mathopen
\mathfrak  
fraktur font for uppercase and lowercase letters and digits (and a few other characters) class ORD
\mathfrak #1
مثال ها :
\mathfrak{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\mathfrak{0123456789} نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\mathfrak{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\mathfrak{AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB

see also:   \frak
\mathinner  
some constructions are meant to appear ‘inside’ other formulas,
and should be surrounded by additional space in certain circumstances;
this classification is forced on the argument by using \mathinner
class INNER
\mathinner #1
مثال ها :
ab\text{inside}cd نمایش می دهد abinsidecdabinsidecd
ab\mathinner{\text{inside}}cd نمایش می دهد abinsidecdabinsidecd
\mathit  
math italic mode class ORD
\mathit #1
مثال ها :
\rm abc \mathit{def} ghi نمایش می دهد abcdefghiabcdefghi

in MathJax, this is the same as:   \mit   and   \it
\mathop  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘large operator’ class;   for example, like ‘’;
creates an element of class OP
class OP
\mathop #1
مثال ها :
atbtc نمایش می دهد atbtcatbtc
a\mathop{t}b\mathop{t}c نمایش می دهد atbtcat⁡bt⁡c
\star_a^b نمایش می دهد (in display mode) ba⋆ab
\mathop{\star}_a^b نمایش می دهد (in display mode) ba⋆ab
\mathopen  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘opening’ class;   for example, like ‘((’ and ‘[[’;
creates an element of class OPEN
class OPEN
\mathopen #1
مثال ها :
a + \lt b\gt + c نمایش می دهد a+<b>+ca++c
a + \mathopen\lt b\mathclose\gt + c نمایش می دهد a+<b>+ca++c

see also:   \mathclose
\mathord  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘ordinary’ class;   for example, like ‘//’;
spacing is determined by pairs of tokens;
there is no extra spacing between adjacent ORD's (as in the second example below);
there is extra spacing between an  ORD  and a  BIN  (as in the first example below);
creates an element of class ORD
class ORD
\mathord #1
مثال ها :
a+b+c نمایش می دهد a+b+ca+b+c
a\mathord{+}b\mathord{+}c نمایش می دهد a+b+ca+b+c
1,234,567 نمایش می دهد 1,234,5671,234,567
1\mathord{,}234{,}567 نمایش می دهد 1,234,5671,234,567
\mathpunct  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘punctuation’ class;   for example, like ‘,,’;
punctuation tends to have some extra space after the symbol;
returns an element of class PUNCT
class PUNCT
\mathpunct #1
مثال ها :
1.234 نمایش می دهد 1.2341.234
1\mathpunct{.}234 نمایش می دهد 1.2341.234
\mathrel  
forces the argument to be treated in the ‘relation’ class;   for example, like ‘==’ and ‘>>’;
relations have a bit more space on both sides than binary operators;
returns an element of class REL
class REL
\mathrel #1
مثال ها :
a \# b نمایش می دهد a#ba#b
a \mathrel{\#} b نمایش می دهد a#ba#b
\mathring AMSmath
˚˚
  ˚
\mathring #1
مثال ها :
\mathring A نمایش می دهد ˚A
\mathring{AB}C نمایش می دهد ˚ABCAB˚C
\mathrm  
roman typestyle for uppercase and lowercase letters class ORD
\mathrm #1
مثال ها :
\mathrm{AaBb\alpha\beta123} نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
\mathrm ZR نمایش می دهد ZRZR
\mathrm{uvw}xyz نمایش می دهد uvwxyzuvwxyz

see also:   \rm
\mathscr  
script typestyle for uppercase letters;
if lowercase script letters are not available, then they are typeset in a roman typestyle
class ORD
\mathscr #1
Whether lower-case letters are displayed in script, or not, depends on the fonts being used.
The MathJax web-based fonts don't have lowercase script, but the STIX fonts do;
so users with the STIX fonts installed will be able to display lowercase script letters.

مثال ها :
\mathscr{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\mathscr{0123456789} نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\mathscr{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\mathscr{AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB

see also:   \scr
\mathsf  
sans serif typestyle for uppercase and lowercase letters and digits;
also affects uppercase greek (as do the other font switches,
like \rm, \it, \bf, \mathrm, \mathit, \mathbf, etc).
class ORD
\mathsf #1
مثال ها :
\mathsf{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\mathsf{0123456789} نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\mathsf{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\Delta\Gamma\Lambda\mathsf{\Delta\Gamma\Lambda} نمایش می دهد ΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛ
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\mathsf{AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB

see also:   \sf
\mathstrut  
an invisible box whose width is zero;
its height and depth are the same as a parenthesis ‘((’;
can be used to achieve more uniform appearance in adjacent formulas
class ORD

مثال ها :
\sqrt3 + \sqrt\alpha نمایش می دهد 3+α3+α
\sqrt{\mathstrut 3} + \sqrt{\mathstrut\alpha} نمایش می دهد 3+α(3+(α
\mathtt  
typewriter typestyle for uppercase and lowercase letters and digits;
also affects uppercase Greek
class ORD
\mathtt #1
مثال ها :
\mathtt{ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ} نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\mathtt{0123456789} نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\mathtt{abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
\Delta\Gamma\Lambda\mathtt{\Delta\Gamma\Lambda} نمایش می دهد ΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛ
\mathtt{AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB

see also:   \tt
\matrix   matrix (without any delimiters)
\matrix{ & ... \cr }
alignment occurs at the ampersands;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

مثال :
\matrix{ a & b \cr c & d }
نمایش می دهد abcdabcd

see also:   \array
\max maxmax
maximum;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\max_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) maxsubmaxsub
\max_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (display mode) maxsubmaxsub
see also:   \min
\mbox  
creates a box just wide enough to hold the text in its argument;
no linebreaks are allowed in the text;
text appears in  \rm 
class ORD
\mbox

مثال ها :
a + b \mbox{ (are you paying attention?) } = c نمایش می دهد a+b (are you paying attention?) =ca+b (are you paying attention?) =c
a + b \text{ (are you paying attention?) } = c نمایش می دهد a+b (are you paying attention?) =ca+b (are you paying attention?) =c
in MathJax, these are essentially the same:   \text,   \hbox
see also:   \rm
\measuredangle AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\mho AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\mid
the spacing is perfect for use in set-builder notation   class REL

مثال ها :
\{x | x\gt 1\} نمایش می دهد {x|x>1}{x|x>1}
\{x \mid x\gt 1\} نمایش می دهد {xx>1}{x∣x>1}

see also:   \nmid,   \shortmid,   \nshortmid
\min minmin
minimum;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\min_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) minsubminsub
\min_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (display mode) minsubminsub
see also:   \max
\mit  
math italic typestyle class ORD
\mit #1
مثال ها :
\mit{\Gamma\Delta\Theta\Omega} نمایش می دهد ΓΔΘΩΓΔΘΩ
\mathit{\Gamma\Delta\Theta\Omega} نمایش می دهد ΓΔΘΩΓΔΘΩ
\Gamma\Delta\Theta\Omega نمایش می دهد ΓΔΘΩΓΔΘΩ

in MathJax, this is the same as:   \mathit   and   \it
\mkern  
\mkern <dimen>
gives horizontal space

مثال ها :
ab نمایش می دهد abab
a\mkern18mu b نمایش می دهد abab
a\mkern18pt b نمایش می دهد abab
in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hskip,   \hspace,   \kern,   \mskip,   \mspace
\mod modmod modulus operator; modulo;
the leading space depends on the style:   displaystyle has 18 mu, others 12 mu;
2 thinspaces of following space;
for things like equations modulo a number
\mod #1
مثال :
3\equiv 5 \mod 2 نمایش می دهد 35mod23≡5mod2
see also:   \pmod,   \bmod
\models
    class REL
\moveleft
\moveright
  shifts boxes to the left or right
\moveleft <dimen>
\moveright <dimen>
In actual TEXTEX, these require an  \hbox  (or some box) as an argument, and can only appear in vertical mode;
MathJax is less picky: you don't need an actual box, and MathJax doesn't have a vertical mode;
these are not really designed as user-level macros, but instead allow existing macros to work;
the box takes up its original space (unlike something like  \llap  or  \rlap ), but its contents are shifted (without affecting its bounding box)

مثال ها :
\rm tight نمایش می دهد tighttight
\rm t\moveleft3pt ight نمایش می دهد tighttight
\rm t\moveleft3pt i\moveleft3pt g\moveleft3pt h\moveleft3pt t نمایش می دهد tighttight
\rm t\moveleft3pt i\moveleft6pt g\moveleft9pt h\moveleft12pt t نمایش می دهد tighttight
\square\square\moveleft 2em {\diamond\diamond} نمایش می دهد ◻◻⋄⋄
\square\square\moveright 2em {\diamond\diamond} نمایش می دهد ◻◻⋄⋄
see also:   \raise,   \lower
\mp
minus plus   class BIN

see also:   \pm
\mskip  
\mskip <dimen>
gives horizontal space

مثال ها :
ab نمایش می دهد abab
a\mskip18mu b نمایش می دهد abab
a\mskip18pt b نمایش می دهد abab
in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hskip,   \hspace,   \kern,   \mkern,   \mspace
\mspace  
\mspace <dimen>
gives horizontal space

مثال ها :
ab نمایش می دهد abab
a\mspace18mu b نمایش می دهد abab
a\mspace18pt b نمایش می دهد abab
in MathJax, these all behave the same:   \hskip,   \hspace,   \kern,   \mkern,   \mskip
\mu μμ
lowercase Greek letter mu μ   class ORD
\multimap AMSsymbols
    class REL

N
\nabla
    class ORD
\natural
see also:   \flat,   \sharp   class ORD
\ncong AMSsymbols
not congruent   class REL
see also:   \cong
\ne
not equal   class REL
see also:   equals,   \neq
\nearrow
northeast arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
see also:   \nwarrow,   \searrow,   \swarrow
\neg ¬¬
negate; negation ¬   class ORD
see also:   \lnot
\negthinspace AMSmath
\negmedspace AMSmath
\negthickspace AMSmath
 
negative thin space
negative medium space
negative thick space

مثال ها :
ab نمایش می دهد abab
a\negthinspace b نمایش می دهد abab
a\negmedspace b نمایش می دهد abab
a\negthickspace b نمایش می دهد abab
see also:   \thinspace
\neq
see also:   equals,   \ne   class REL
\newcommand   for defining your own commands (control sequences, macros, definitions);
\newcommand  must appear (within math delimiters) before it is used;
if desired, you can use the  TeX.Macros  property of the configuration to define macros in the head
\newcommand\myCommandName
  [  ]
  {  }
The bracketed # of arguments is omitted when there are no arguments.

Example (no arguments):
\newcommand\myHearts
  {\color{purple}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{green}{\heartsuit}}
  
\myHearts\myHearts
نمایش می دهد: ♡♡♡♡

A definition may take one or more arguments:

Example (two arguments):
\newcommand\myHearts[2]
  {\color{#1}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{#2}{\heartsuit}}
  
\myHearts{red}{blue}
نمایش می دهد: ♡♡

see also:   \def,   \newenvironment
\newenvironment   for defining your own environments;
\newenvironment  must appear (within math delimiters) before it is used
\newenvironment{myEnvironmentName}
  [  ]
  {  }
  {  }
The bracketed # of arguments is omitted when there are no arguments.
There must not be a command having the same name as the environment:
for example, to use   \begin{myHeart}...\end{myHeart}   there may not be a command \myHeart.

Example (no arguments):
\newenvironment{myHeartEnv}
  {\color{purple}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{green}{\heartsuit}}
  {\text{ forever}}
  
\begin{myHeartEnv}
\end{myHeartEnv}
نمایش می دهد:  forever♡♡ forever

An environment may take one or more arguments:

Example (two arguments):
\newenvironment{myHeartEnv}[2]
  {\color{#1}{\heartsuit}\kern-2.5pt\color{#2}{\heartsuit}}
  {\text{ forever}}
  
\begin{myHeartEnv}{red}{blue}
\end{myHeartEnv}
نمایش می دهد:  forever♡♡ forever

see also:   \def,   \newcommand
\newline   line separator in alignment modes and environments

in MathJax, these are essentially the same:   \cr,   \\
\nexists AMSsymbols
∄
see also:   \exists   class ORD
\ngeq AMSsymbols
\ngeqq AMSsymbols
not greater than or equal to   class REL
not greater than or equal to   class REL
see also:   \geq,   \geqq
\ngeqslant AMSsymbols
slanted not greater than or equal to   class REL
see also:   \geqslant
\ngtr AMSsymbols
not greater than   class REL
see also:   \gt
\ni
backwards ‘in’; contains   class REL
see also:   \in
\nleftarrow AMSsymbols
\nLeftarrow AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \leftarrow,   \Leftarrow
\nleftrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nLeftrightarrow AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \leftrightarrow,   \Leftrightarrow
\nleq AMSsymbols
\nleqq AMSsymbols
not less than or equal to   class REL
not less than or equal to   class REL
see also:   \leq,   \leqq
\nleqslant AMSsymbols
slanted not less than or equal to   class REL
see also:   \leqslant
\nless AMSsymbols
see also:   \lt   class REL
\nmid AMSsymbols
see also:   \mid   class REL
\nobreakspace AMSmath
 
مثال :     class ORD
a\nobreakspace b نمایش می دهد a ba b

in MathJax, this is the same as:   \  (backslash space)
\nolimits    used to change the default placement of limits;
only allowed on items of class  OP

مثال ها :
\sum_{k=1}^n a_k نمایش می دهد (in display mode) nk=1ak∑k=1nak
\sum\nolimits_{k=1}^n a_k نمایش می دهد (in display mode) nk=1ak∑k=1nak
see also:   \limits
\normalsize  
turns on normal size class ORD
{\normalsize ... }
مثال :
\rm \scriptsize script \normalsize normal \large large نمایش می دهد scriptnormallargescriptnormallarge

see also:   \scriptsize
\not /
used to negate relations /   class REL
مثال ها :
\not\gt نمایش می دهد
\ngtr نمایش می دهد
\notag AMSmath
 
used in AMS math environments that do automatic equation numbering, to suppress the equation number; since MathJax doesn't implement auto-numbering (as of version 1.1a), it is basically a no-op, although it will cancel an explicit  \tag ;
when auto-numbering is added, then this will work as expected;
\notag  is included now for compatibility with existing TeX code (to prevent throwing an error, even though it has no effect)
class ORD
\notin
see also:   \in   class REL
\nparallel AMSsymbols
not parallel   class REL
see also:   \parallel
\nprec AMSsymbols
see also:   \prec   class REL
\npreceq AMSsymbols
see also:   \preceq   class REL
\nrightarrow AMSsymbols
\nRightarrow AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \rightarrow,   \Rightarrow
\nshortmid AMSsymbols
see also:   \mid,   \shortmid   class REL
\nshortparallel AMSsymbols
see also:   \parallel,   \shortparallel   class REL
\nsim AMSsymbols
see also:   \sim   class REL
\nsubseteq AMSsymbols
\nsubseteqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \subseteq,   \subseteqq
\nsucc AMSsymbols
\nsucceq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \succ,   \succeq
\nsupseteq AMSsymbols
\nsupseteqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \supseteq,   \supseteqq
\ntriangleleft AMSsymbols
\ntrianglelefteq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \triangleleft,   \trianglelefteq
\ntriangleright AMSsymbols
\ntrianglerighteq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \triangleright,   \trianglerighteq
\nu νν
lowercase Greek letter nu ν   class ORD
\nVDash AMSsymbols
\nVdash AMSsymbols
\nvDash AMSsymbols
\nvdash AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \Vdash,   \vDash,   \vdash
\nwarrow
northwest arrow; non-stretchy   class REL
see also:   \nearrow,   \searrow,   \swarrow

O
\odot
\ominus
\oplus
\oslash
\otimes
  class BIN
  class BIN
  class BIN
  class BIN
  class BIN
\oint
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP
\oldstyle  
this is intended for oldstyle numbers; it is a switch that turns on oldstyle mode;
the way it works in TEXTEX is to select the caligraphic font
(which is where the oldstyle numbers are stored),
so it has the side effect of selecting caligraphic upper-case letters;
MathJax does the same for compatibility
class ORD
{\oldstyle ... }
مثال ها :
\oldstyle 0123456789 نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\oldstyle ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\oldstyle abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
{\oldstyle AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\oldstyle AB \rm AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\oldstyle{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \cal,   \mathcal
\omega
\Omega
ωω
ΩΩ
lowercase Greek letter omega ω   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter omega Ω   class ORD
see also:   \varOmega
\omicron οο
lowercase Greek letter omicron ο   class ORD
\operatorname AMSmath
 
This is similar to  \DeclareMathOperator,
but rather than defining a macro, it produces an instance of an operator like  \lim .

For example,
\operatorname{myOp}

is equivalent to the use of  \myOp , after having defined

\DeclareMathOperator{\myOp}{myOp}

If displaystyle limits are desired in both inline and display modes,
then use  operatorname*  instead of  operatorname
class OP

مثال ها :
 
\operatorname{myFct}(x) نمایش می دهد myFct(x)myFct⁡(x)
\operatorname*{myFct}_a^b(x) نمایش می دهد (in inline mode) myFctba(x)myFctab⁡(x)
See  \DeclareMathOperator  for further explanation and مثال ها .
\over   general command for making fractions
{ \over }
Creates a fraction:
numerator:   subformula1
denominator:   subformula2

مثال ها :
a \over b نمایش می دهد abab
a+1 \over b+2 نمایش می دهد a+1b+2a+1b+2
{a+1 \over b+2}+c نمایش می دهد a+1b+2+ca+1b+2+c
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \overwithdelims
\overbrace   puts a (stretchy) over-brace over the argument;
can use ‘^’ to place an optional superscript over the overbrace;
can use ‘_’ to place an optional subscript below the argument
\overbrace #1
مثال :
\overbrace{x + \cdots + x}^{n\rm\ times}_{\text{(note here)} نمایش می دهد n timesx++x(note here)x+⋯+x⏞(note here)n times

see also:   \underbrace
\overleftarrow
\overrightarrow
\overleftrightarrow
stretchy over left arrow
stretchy over right arrow
stretchy over left right arrow
\overleftarrow #1
\overrightarrow #1
\overleftrightarrow #1
مثال ها :
\overleftarrow{\text{the argument}} نمایش می دهد −−−−−−−−−the argumentthe argument←
\overrightarrow{AB} نمایش می دهد ABAB→
\overrightarrow{AB\strut} نمایش می دهد ABAB→
\overleftrightarrow{\hspace1in} نمایش می دهد −−−−−−−−−
\overline ¯¯
stretchy overline
\overline #1
مثال ها :
 
\overline{AB} نمایش می دهد ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ABAB¯
\overline a نمایش می دهد ¯¯¯a
\overline{\text{a long argument}} نمایش می دهد ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯a long argumenta long argument¯
\overparen   puts a (stretchy) over-parenthesis (over-arc, frown) over the argument (new in MathJax 2.6)
\overparen #1
مثال :
\overparen a \quad
\overparen ab \quad 
\overparen{ab} \quad
\overparen{abc} \quad
\overparen{abcdef} \quad
\overparen{\underparen{abcd}}

نمایش می دهد
aabababcabcdefabcda⏜a⏜bab⏜abc⏜abcdef⏜abcd⏝⏜

see also:   \underparen,   \smallfrown,   \frown,   \smallsmile,   \smile
\overset  
\overset #1 #2
oversets argument #1 (in scriptstyle) over argument #2

مثال ها :
\overset{\rm top}{\rm bottom} نمایش می دهد topbottombottomtop
\overset ab نمایش می دهد abba
a\,\overset{?}{=}\,b نمایش می دهد a?=ba=?b
see also:   \atop,   \underset
\overwithdelims   general command for making fractions;
uses default thickness for fraction bar for current size
{ \overwithdelims } Creates a fraction:
numerator   subformula1
denominator   subformula2
delim1   is put before the fraction
delim2   is put after the fraction
For an empty delimiter, use ‘.’ in place of the delimiter.

مثال ها :
a \overwithdelims [ ] b نمایش می دهد [ab][ab]
a+1 \overwithdelims . | b+2 نمایش می دهد a+1b+2a+1b+2|
{a+1 \overwithdelims \{ \} b+2}+c نمایش می دهد {a+1b+2}+c{a+1b+2}+c
see also:     \above,   \abovewithdelims,   \atop,   \atopwithdelims,
  \cfrac,   \dfrac,   \frac,   \genfrac,   \over
\owns
see also:   \ni,   \in   class REL

P
\parallel
see also:   \nparallel   class REL
\partial
مثال :
\frac{\partial f}{\partial x} نمایش می دهد fx∂f∂x
  class ORD
\perp
perpendicular to   class REL
\phantom  
phantom (both horizontal and vertical) class ORD

Sometimes you want to pretend that something is there, for spacing reasons,
but you don't want it to appear—you want it to be invisible—you want it to be a phantom.

The box created by   \phantom   has width, height and depth equal to its argument.
In other words, \phantom   creates horizontal and vertical space equal to that of its argument,
even though the argument isn't visible.
\phantom #1
مثال ها :
\sqrt{\frac ab}
\sqrt{\phantom{\frac ab}}
نمایش می دهد ababab
\frac{2x+3y-\phantom{5}z}
  {\phantom{2}x+\phantom{3}y+5z}
نمایش می دهد 2x+3yzx+y+5z2x+3y−5z2x+3y+5z
\Gamma^{\phantom{i}j}_{i\phantom{j}k}
نمایش می دهد ΓjikΓijkij
\matrix{1&-1\cr 2&\phantom{-}3}
نمایش می دهد 11231−12−3
see also:   \hphantom,   \vphantom
\phi
\Phi
ϕϕ
ΦΦ
lowercase Greek letter phi &##x03D5;   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter phi Φ   class ORD
see also:   \varphi,   \varPhi
\pi
\Pi
ππ
ΠΠ
lowercase Greek letter pi π   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter Pi Π   class ORD
see also:   \varpi,   \varPi
\pitchfork AMSsymbols
    class REL
\pm ±±
plus or minus &x00B1;   class BIN
see also:   \mp
\pmatrix  
matrix enclosed in parentheses class OPEN
\pmatrix{ & ... \cr }
alignment occurs at the ampersands;
a double-backslash can be used in place of the  \cr ;
the final   \\   or   \cr   is optional

مثال :
A = \pmatrix{
a_{11} & a_{12} & \ldots & a_{1n} \cr
a_{21} & a_{22} & \ldots & a_{2n} \cr
\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \cr
a_{m1} & a_{m2} & \ldots & a_{mn} \cr
}
نمایش می دهد A=⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜a11a12a1na21a22a2nam1am2amn⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟A=(a11a12…a1na21a22…a2n⋮⋮⋱⋮am1am2…amn)
see also:   \matrix
\pmb  
poor man's bold;
it works by duplicating its argument slightly offset,
giving a bold effect (at least in the horizontal direction);
doesn't work well for horizontal lines, like or ++
class ORD
\pmb #1
مثال ها :
a \pmb a \boldsymbol a نمایش می دهد aaaaaaaa
\pmb{a+b-c}\ \ a+b-c نمایش می دهد a+bca+bc  a+bca+b−ca+b−c  a+b−c
\pmod (mod)(mod) parenthesized modulus operator; parenthesized modulo;
18 mu of leading space before the opening parenthesis in display style;
8 mu of leading space before the opening parenthesis in other styles;
6 mu of space after the word  mod
\pmod #1
مثال ها :
5\equiv 8 \pmod 3 نمایش می دهد 58(mod3)5≡8(mod3)
\pmod{n+m} نمایش می دهد (modn+m)(modn+m)
see also:   \mod,   \bmod
\pod ()() parenthesized argument with leading space;
18 mu of leading space before the opening parenthesis in display style;
8 mu of leading space before the opening parenthesis in other styles
\pod #1
مثال ها :
 
x=y\pod{\text{inline mode}} نمایش می دهد x=y(inline mode)x=y(inline mode)
x=y\pod{\text{display mode}} نمایش می دهد x=y(display mode)x=y(display mode)
\Pr PrPr
does not change size;
default limit placement can be changed using  \limits  and  \nolimits;
does not change size;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\Pr_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) PrsubPrsub
\Pr_{\rm sub} نمایش می دهد (display mode) PrsubPrsub
\prec
see also:   \nprec   class REL
\precapprox AMSsymbols
\precnapprox AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
\preccurlyeq AMSsymbols
    class REL
\preceq  
\precneqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL

see also:   \npreceq
\precsim AMSsymbols
\precnsim AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
\prime
prime character   class ORD
مثال ها :
f' نمایش می دهد ff′
f\prime نمایش می دهد ff′
f^\prime نمایش می دهد ff′
f^{\prime\prime} نمایش می دهد ff′′
f'' نمایش می دهد f′′f″
see also:   \backprime,   prime symbol
\prod
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
  class OP

مثال ها :
\prod_{j=1}^n نمایش می دهد (in inline mode) nj=1∏j=1n
\prod_{j=1}^n نمایش می دهد (in display mode) nj=1∏j=1n
\projlim AMSmath
projlimproj lim
projective limit;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

see also:   \varprojlim
\propto
see also:   \varpropto   class REL
\psi
\Psi
ψψ
ΨΨ
lowercase Greek letter psi ω   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter psi Ω   class ORD
see also:   \varPsi

Q
\quad
\qquad
  \quad   is a 1em space
\qquad   is a 2em space

مثال ها :
|\quad|\quad| نمایش می دهد ||||||
|\qquad\hphantom{|}| نمایش می دهد |||||

R
\raise  
\raise <dimen> #1
raises the argument by the amount specified in <dimen>;
in actual TEXTEX, the argument to  \raise  (and  \lower ) must be an  \hbox ,
but in MathJax it can be any expression (using an \hbox is allowed, but not required)

مثال :
h\raise 2pt {ighe} r نمایش می دهد higherhigher
see also:   \lower
\rangle
right angle bracket;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class CLOSE

مثال :
\left\langle
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rangle
نمایش می دهد abcd⟨abcd⟩
see also:   \langle
\rbrace }}
right brace;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
class CLOSE

مثال :
\left\lbrace
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rbrace
نمایش می دهد {abcd}{abcd}
see also:   \lbrace
\rbrack ]]
right bracket;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
class CLOSE

مثال ها :
 
\lbrack \frac ab, c \rbrack نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]
\left\lbrack \frac ab, c \right\rbrack نمایش می دهد [ab,c][ab,c]
see also:   \lbrack,   [ ]
\rceil
right ceiling;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class CLOSE

مثال :
\left\lceil
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rceil
نمایش می دهد abcd⌈abcd⌉
see also:   \lceil,   \lfloor,   \rfloor
\Re R
    class ORD
\renewcommand   equivalent to \newcommand;
for clarity of code, you may choose to use   \renewcommand   when re-defining a macro;
this is different from actual TEXTEX,
where  \renewcommand  only allows redefining of an existing command

see also:   \def,   \newcommand,   \newenvironment
\require (non-standard)   This is a MathJax-specific macro that can be used to load MathJax TEXTEX extensions (like the AMSmath extension) from within math mode, rather than having to include it in the configuration.
For example,
$\require{AMSsymbols}$
would cause MathJax to load the  extensions/TeX/AMSsymbols.js  file at that point.

Since many people use MathJax in blogs and wikis that may not have all the extensions loaded, this makes it possible to load a lesser-used extension on a particular page, without having to include it in every page.
\restriction AMSsymbols
    class REL
\rfloor
right floor;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
  class CLOSE

see also:   \lfloor,   \lceil,   \rceil
\rgroup
right group;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right
  class CLOSE

مثال :
\left\lgroup
\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}
\right\rgroup
نمایش می دهد ⎪ ⎪ ⎪abcd⎪ ⎪ ⎪⟮abcd⟯
see also:   \lgroup
\rhd AMSsymbols
right-hand diamond   class REL

see also:   \lhd
\rho ρρ
lowercase Greek letter rho   class ORD

see also:   \varrho
\right    used for stretchy delimiters;
see the Variable-Sized Delimiters Table for details

Can be followed by:
delimiter: sample code: نمایش می دهد:
(   ) \left( \frac12 \right) (12)(12)
\updownarrow
\Updownarrow
\left\updownarrow \phantom{\frac12} \right\Updownarrow ↕12⇕

see also:   \left
\rightarrow
\Rightarrow
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \nrightarrow,   \nRightarrow,   \to
\rightarrowtail AMSsymbols
right arrow tail; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \leftarrowtail
\rightharpoondown
\rightharpoonup
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
see also:   \leftharpoondown,   \rightharpoondown
\rightleftarrows AMSsymbols
right left arrows; non-stretchy   class REL
\rightleftharpoons AMSsymbols
right left harpoons; non-stretchy   class REL
\rightrightarrows AMSsymbols
right right arrows; non-stretchy   class REL
\rightsquigarrow AMSsymbols
right squiggle arrow; non-stretchy  class REL
\rightthreetimes AMSsymbols
right three times   class BIN
\risingdotseq AMSsymbols
rising dot sequence   class REL

see also:   \fallingdotseq
\rlap  
right overlap class ORD
\rlap #1
creates a box of width zero;
the argument is then placed just to the right of this zero-width box
(and hence will overlap whatever lies to the right)

مثال :
 
a\mathrel{\rlap{\;/}{=}}b نمایش می دهد a/=ba/=b
In this example,  {=}  forces the equal to not have  REL  spacing (since it is not adjacent to ORD's);
\mathrel{}  forces the compound symbol (equal with overlapping slash) to be treated as a single REL;
the  \;  improves the spacing for the slash.
see also:   \llap
\rm  
turns on roman;  affects uppercase and lowercase letters, and digits;
also affects uppercase Greek
class ORD
{\rm ... }
مثال ها :
\rm AaBb\alpha\beta123 نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
{\rm A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\Delta\Gamma\Lambda{\rm\Delta\Gamma\Lambda} نمایش می دهد ΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛΔΓΛ
\rm AB \bf CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
\rm{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \text,   \hbox,   \mathrm
\rmoustache
right moustache;
non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right   (see below)
  class CLOSE

مثال :
\left\lmoustache
\phantom{\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}}
\right\rmoustache
نمایش می دهد ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎰abcd⎱
see also:   \lmoustache
\root ... \of  
\root \of #1
مثال ها :
\root 3 \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 13 \of {\frac 12} نمایش می دهد 13121213
\root n+1 \of x + 2 نمایش می دهد n+1x+2xn+1+2

see also:   \sqrt,   \leftroot,   \uproot
\Rrightarrow AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL
\Rsh AMSsymbols
right shift; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \Lsh
\rtimes AMSsymbols
see also:   \ltimes   class BIN
\Rule (non-standard)   a MathJax-specific macro giving a rule with a specified width, height, and depth
\Rule
where each argument is a dimension

مثال ها :
x\Rule{3px}{1ex}{2ex}x نمایش می دهد xxxx
x\Rule{3px}{2ex}{1ex}x نمایش می دهد xxxx
\rvert AMSmath
\rVert AMSmath
||
  class CLOSE
  class CLOSE
both non-stretchy when used alone;
stretchy when used with   \left   or   \right

مثال :
\left\lvert\frac{\frac ab}{\frac cd}\right\rvert نمایش می دهد abcd|abcd|
see also:   \lvert,   \lVert,   |,   \|

S
\S §§
section symbol   class ORD
\scr  
turns on script typestyle for uppercase letters;
lowercase letters are in a roman typestyle
class ORD
{ \scr ... }
مثال ها :
\scr ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\scr 0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد 0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد 0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
{\scr AB}AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\scr AB \rm AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\scr{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \mathscr
\scriptscriptstyle  
used to over-ride automatic style rules and force scriptscript style;
stays in force until the end of math mode or the braced group, or until another style is selected
class ORD
 
{ \scriptscriptstyle ... }
مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab+\displaystyle\frac ab+\textstyle\frac ab+\scriptstyle\frac ab+\scriptscriptstyle\frac ab
نمایش می دهد:
ab+ab+ab+ab+abab+ab+ab+ab+ab

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + {\scriptscriptstyle \frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + \scriptscriptstyle{\frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

see also: \displaystyle,   \scriptstyle,   \textstyle
\scriptsize   
turns on script size class ORD
{ \scriptsize ... }
مثال :
\rm \scriptsize script \normalsize normal \large large نمایش می دهد scriptnormallargescriptnormallarge

see also:   \normalsize
\scriptstyle  
used to over-ride automatic style rules and force script style;
stays in force until the end of math mode or the braced group, or until another style is selected
class ORD
 
{ \scriptstyle ... }
مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab+\displaystyle\frac ab+\textstyle\frac ab+\scriptstyle\frac ab+\scriptscriptstyle\frac ab
نمایش می دهد:
ab+ab+ab+ab+abab+ab+ab+ab+ab

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + {\scriptstyle \frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab + \scriptstyle{\frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

see also: \displaystyle,   \scriptscriptstyle,   \textstyle
\searrow
southeast arrow; non-stretchy   class ORD
see also:   \nearrow,   \nwarrow,   \swarrow
\sec secsec
secant;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\sec x نمایش می دهد secxsec⁡x
\sec(2x-1) نمایش می دهد sec(2x1)sec⁡(2x−1)
see also:   \csc
\setminus
set minus   class BIN

مثال ها :
A\setminus B نمایش می دهد ABA∖B
A\backslash B نمایش می دهد ABA∖B
see also:   \backslash
\sf  
turns on sans serif mode for uppercase and lowercase letters and digits, and for uppercase Greek class ORD
{ \sf ... }
مثال ها :
\sf ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ نمایش می دهد ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
\sf 0123456789 نمایش می دهد 01234567890123456789
\sf abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz نمایش می دهد abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
ABCDE 01234 abcde نمایش می دهد ABCDE01234abcdeABCDE01234abcde
{\sf AB\Delta\Gamma\Lambda}\ AB\Delta\Gamma\Lambda نمایش می دهد ABΔΓΛ ABΔΓΛABΔΓΛ ABΔΓΛ
\sf AB \rm AB نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\sf{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD

see also:   \mathsf
\sharp
musical sharp symbol   class ORD

see also:   \flat,   \natural
\shortmid AMSsymbols
see also:   \nshortmid,   \mid   class REL
\shortparallel AMSsymbols
see also:   \nshortparallel   class REL
\shoveleft AMSmath
\shoveright AMSmath
  forces flush left or flush right typesetting in a   \multline   or   \multline*   environment (see مثال ها )

مثال :
\begin{multline}
(a+b+c+d)^2 \\
+ (e+f)^2 + (g+h)^2 + (i+j)^2 + (k+l)^2 \\
+ (m+n)^2 + (o+p)^2 + (q+r)^2 + (s+t)^2 + (u+v)^2  \\
+ (w+x+y+z)^2
\end{multline}
نمایش می دهد(a+b+c+d)2+(e+f)2+(g+h)2+(i+j)2+(k+l)2+(m+n)2+(o+p)2+(q+r)2+(s+t)2+(u+v)2+(w+x+y+z)2(a+b+c+d)2+(e+f)2+(g+h)2+(i+j)2+(k+l)2+(m+n)2+(o+p)2+(q+r)2+(s+t)2+(u+v)2+(w+x+y+z)2مثال :
\begin{multline}
(a+b+c+d)^2 \\
\shoveleft{+ (e+f)^2 + (g+h)^2 + (i+j)^2 + (k+l)^2} \\
\shoveright{+ (m+n)^2 + (o+p)^2 + (q+r)^2 + (s+t)^2 + (u+v)^2}  \\
+ (w+x+y+z)^2
\end{multline}
نمایش می دهد(a+b+c+d)2+(e+f)2+(g+h)2+(i+j)2+(k+l)2+(m+n)2+(o+p)2+(q+r)2+(s+t)2+(u+v)2+(w+x+y+z)2(a+b+c+d)2+(e+f)2+(g+h)2+(i+j)2+(k+l)2+(m+n)2+(o+p)2+(q+r)2+(s+t)2+(u+v)2+(w+x+y+z)2
\sideset AMSmath
  used for putting symbols at the four ‘corners’ of a large operator (like or )
\sideset{_#1^#2}{_#3^#4}
where:
  • #1 = lower left
  • #2 = upper left
  • #3 = lower right
  • #4 = upper right
مثال ها :
\sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\sum نمایش می دهد 2143∑12∑34
\sigma
\Sigma
σσ
ΣΣ
lowercase Greek letter sigma σ   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter sigma Σ   class ORD

see also:   \sum,   \varsigma,   \varSigma
\sim
\simeq
  class REL
  class REL

see also:   \nsim
\sin sinsin
sine;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\sin x نمایش می دهد sinxsin⁡x
\sin(2x-1) نمایش می دهد sin(2x1)sin⁡(2x−1)

see also:   \cos
\sinh sinhsinh
hyperbolic sine;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\sinh x نمایش می دهد sinhxsinh⁡x
\sinh(2x-1) نمایش می دهد sinh(2x1)sinh⁡(2x−1)

see also:   \cosh
\skew   used to finely adjust the positioning on accents;
particularly useful for adjusting superaccents (accents on accents);
usually requires trial-and-error adjustment for proper positioning
\skew #1
where #1 is a positive integer (the skew amount)

مثال ها :
\hat A نمایش می دهد ^AA^
\skew7\hat A نمایش می دهد ^AA^
\tilde M نمایش می دهد ~MM~
\skew{8}\tilde M نمایش می دهد ~MM~
\hat{\hat A} نمایش می دهد ^^AA^^
\skew4\hat{\hat A} نمایش می دهد ^^AA^^
\small  
turns on small size; affects all math class ORD
{\small ... }
مثال :
\rm\tiny tiny \Tiny Tiny
\small small \normalsize normal
\large lg \Large Lg \LARGE LG
\huge hg \Huge Hg
نمایش می دهد tinyTinysmallnormallgLgLGhgHgtinyTinysmallnormallgLgLGhgHg
\def\myExp{\alpha\frac xy}
\tiny\myExp \Tiny\myExp
\small\myExp \normalsize\myExp
\large\myExp \Large\myExp \LARGE\myExp
\huge\myExp \Huge\myExp
نمایش می دهد αxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxyαxy
ab{\small cd} cd نمایش می دهد abcdcdabcdcd
ab\small{cd} cd نمایش می دهد abcdcdabcdcd

see also:   \tiny,   \Tiny,   \normalsize,   \large,   \Large,   \LARGE,   \huge,   \Huge
\smallfrown AMSsymbols
small frown   class REL

see also:   \frown,   \smile,   \smallsmile
\smallint
small integral   class OP

see also:   \int
\smallsetminus AMSsymbols
small set minus   class BIN

see also:   \setminus
\smallsmile AMSsymbols
small smile   class REL

see also:   \smile,   \frown,   \smallfrown
\smash  
By using \smash, \phantom, \hphantom, \vphantom, \rlap, \llap,
you can typeset any mathematics,
yet give it the width and/or height and/or depth of any other mathematics.
\smash #1
Typesets the argument in a box with the same width as the argument,
but with height and depth equal to zero.
In other words: the argument of   \smash   is visible, and has its natural width,
but does not contribute any height or depth to the surrounding mathematics
(hence leaving the surrounding mathematics to dictate height and depth).
class ORD
Here are some scenarios:
  • to vertically   \smash   the box containing   this   and make it instead behave vertically like   that  :
    \smash{this}\vphantom{that}

    مثال ها :
    \sqrt{\frac ab}
    \sqrt{\smash{7}\vphantom{\frac ab}}
    
    نمایش می دهد ab7ab7ab
    \sqrt{\frac{\frac ab}{\frac cd}}
    \sqrt{\smash{\frac ef}\vphantom{\frac{\frac ab}{\frac cd}}}
    
    نمایش می دهد abcdefabcdefabcd
  • to horizontally compress the box containing   this   and make it instead behave horizontally like   that  :
    \rlap{this}\hphantom{that}
    or
    \hphantom{that}\llap{this}

    مثال ها :
    \sqrt{\rm very\ wide}
    \sqrt{\rlap{\rm thin}\hphantom{\rm very\ wide}}
    
    نمایش می دهد very widethinvery widethinvery wide
    \sqrt{\rm very\ wide}
    \sqrt{\hphantom{\rm very\ wide}\llap{\rm thin}}
    
    نمایش می دهد very widethinvery widevery widethin
  • to both vertically smash and horizontally compress the box containing   this  
    and make it instead behave both vertically and horizontally like   that  :
    \rlap{\smash{this}}\phantom{that}
    or
    \phantom{that}\llap{\smash{this}}

    مثال ها :
    \sqrt{\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}}
    \sqrt{
    \rlap{\smash{\rm Hi!}}
    \phantom{\matrix{a & b\cr c & d}}
    }
    
    نمایش می دهد abcdHi!abcdHi!abcd
see also:   \hphantom,   \vphantom,   \phantom,   \llap,   \rlap
\smile
smile   class REL

see also:   \smallsmile,   \frown,   \smallfrown
\space  
مثال :
a\space b نمایش می دهد a ba b
    class ORD
in MathJax, this is the same as:   \ (backslash space), \nobreakspace
\Space (non-standard)   a MathJax-specific macro giving space with a specified width, height, and depth
\Space
where each argument is a dimension

Compare:
a\Rule{5px}{4ex}{2ex}^b_c d نمایش می دهد abcdacbd
a\Space{5px}{4ex}{2ex}^b_c d نمایش می دهد abcdacbd
see also:   \Rule
\spadesuit
see also:   \clubsuit,   \diamondsuit,   \heartsuit   class ORD
\sphericalangle AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\sqcap
\sqcup
square cap   class BIN
square cup   class BIN
\sqrt
square root (and other roots) class ORD
\sqrt #1
\sqrt[n]{op}   is equivalent to   \root n \of {op}
مثال ها :
\sqrt x نمایش می دهد xx
\sqrt xy نمایش می دهد xyxy
\sqrt{xy} نمایش می دهد xyxy
\sqrt[3]{x+1} نمایش می دهد 3x+1x+13

see also:   \root
\sqsubset AMSsymbols
\sqsupset AMSsymbols
square subset   class REL
square superset   class REL
\sqsubseteq
\sqsupseteq
  class REL
  class REL
\square AMSsymbols
    class ORD
\stackrel   stack relations;
you can stack anything (not just relations) but it creates an item of class  REL 
(and usually the bottom is a  REL  to start with, but doesn't have to be)
\stackrel #1 #2
where #1 (in superscript style) is stacked on top of #2

مثال ها :
\stackrel{\rm def}{=} نمایش می دهد def==def
\stackrel{\rm top}{\rm bottom} نمایش می دهد topbottombottomtop
\star
    class BIN
\strut   an invisible box with no width, height 8.6pt and depth 3pt;
note that   \mathstrut   changes with the current size, but   \strut   does not

مثال ها :
\sqrt{(\ )}
\sqrt{\mathstrut\rm mathstrut}
\sqrt{\strut\rm strut}
نمایش می دهد ( )mathstrutstrut( )(mathstrutstrut
\Tiny
\sqrt{(\ )}
\sqrt{\mathstrut\rm mathstrut}
\sqrt{\strut\rm strut}
نمایش می دهد ( )mathstrutstrut( )(mathstrutstrut
\Large
\sqrt{(\ )}
\sqrt{\mathstrut\rm mathstrut}
\sqrt{\strut\rm strut}
نمایش می دهد ( )mathstrutstrut( )(mathstrutstrut
see also:   \mathstrut
\style   [HTML] non-standard;
used to apply CSS styling to mathematics
\style #1 #2
where:
  • #1  is a (single) CSS style declaration
  • #2  is the mathematics to be styled
مثال ها :
\frac{\style{color:red}{x+1}}{y+2}
نمایش می دهد x+1y+2x+1y+2
\style{background-color:yellow}{\frac{x+1}{y+2}}
نمایش می دهد x+1y+2x+1y+2

مثال :

Consider the following HTML/Javascript/MathJax code:




$$
(x+1)^2 = \cssId{answer}\style{visibility:hidden}{(x+1)(x+1)}
$$
Then, the result of this HTML/Javascript/MathJax code is:

Click to reveal answer(x+1)2=(x+1)2=
see also:   \class,   \cssId
\subset
    class REL
\Subset AMSsymbols
    class REL
\subseteq  
\subsetneq AMSsymbols
\subseteqq AMSsymbols
\subsetneqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \nsubseteq,   \nsubseteqq,   \varsubsetneq,   \varsubsetneqq
\substack AMSmath
  use for multi-line subscripts or superscripts

مثال ها :
\sum_{
\substack{
1\lt i\lt 3 \\
1\le j\lt 5
}}
a_{ij}
نمایش می دهد (display mode) 1<i<31j<5aij∑1
^{\substack{\text{a very} \\
\text{contrived} \\
\text{example}
}}
{\frac ab}_{\substack{
\text{isn't} \\
\text{it?}
}}
نمایش می دهد (display mode) a verycontrivedexampleabisn'tit?a verycontrivedexampleabisn'tit?

see also:   \begin{subarray}
\succ
see also:   \nsucc   class REL
\succapprox AMSsymbols
\succnapprox AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
\succcurlyeq AMSsymbols
    class REL
\succeq  
\succneqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \nsucceq
\succsim AMSsymbols
\succnsim AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
\sum
summation notation;
changes size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
  class OP

see also:   \Sigma
\sup supsup
supremum;
greatest lower bound;
does not change size;
can change limit placement using \limits and \nolimits;
see the Big Operators Table for مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\sup_{\rm limit} نمایش می دهد (inline mode) suplimitsuplimit
\sup_{\rm limit} نمایش می دهد (display mode) suplimitsuplimit
see also:   \inf
\supset
    class REL
\Supset AMSsymbols
    class REL
\supseteq  
\supsetneq AMSsymbols
\supseteqq AMSsymbols
\supsetneqq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
  class REL
see also:   \nsupseteq,   \nsupseteqq,   \varsupsetneq,   \varsupsetneqq
\surd
    class ORD
\swarrow
southwest arrow; non-stretchy   class REL

see also:   \nearrow,   \nwarrow,   \searrow

T
\tag AMSmath
  used primarily in AMS math environments to get tags (equation numbers, labels);
can, however, be used on any equation;
the argument of  \tag  is typeset in text mode, but math mode can be used within the text:
for example,  \tag{\$\bullet\$} 
You can use dollar signs in text-mode regardless of the settings of the  inlineMath  delimiters in the tex2jax preprocessor.
\tag #1

مثال :
\eqalign{
3x - 4y &= 5\cr
x + 7 &= -2y
} 
\tag{3.1c}
نمایش می دهد 3x4y=5x+7=2y(3.1c)(3.1c)3x−4y=5x+7=−2y
\tan tantan
tangent;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\tan x نمایش می دهد tanxtan⁡x
\tan(2x-1) نمایش می دهد tan(2x1)tan⁡(2x−1)
see also:   \cot
\tanh tanhtanh
hyperbolic tangent;
does not change size;
default limit placement is the same in both inline and display modes;
can change limit placement using \limits;
see the Big Operators Table for more مثال ها
class OP

مثال ها :
\tanh x نمایش می دهد tanhxtanh⁡x
\tanh(2x-1) نمایش می دهد tanh(2x1)tanh⁡(2x−1)

see also:   \cosh,   \sinh
\tau ττ
lowercase Greek letter tau τ   class ORD
\tbinom AMSmath
  notation commonly used for binomial coefficients; in textstyle
\tbinom #1 #2
مثال ها :
\tbinom n k نمایش می دهد (inline mode) (nk)(nk)
\tbinom n k نمایش می دهد (display mode) (nk)(nk)
\binom n k نمایش می دهد (display mode) (nk)(nk)
\tbinom{n-1}k-1 نمایش می دهد (n1k)1(n−1k)−1
\tbinom{n-1}{k-1} نمایش می دهد (n1k1)(n−1k−1)
see also:   \binom,   \choose,   \dbinom
\TeX TEXTEX
the TeX logo class ORD

مثال ها :
\TeX نمایش می دهد TEXTEX
\rm\TeX نمایش می دهد TEXTEX

see also:   \LaTeX
\text
\textbf
\textit
\textrm
\textsf
\texttt
 
\text:   text
\textbf:   boldface text
\textit:   italic text
\textrm:   roman text
\textsf:   sans serif text (added in MathJax 2.4)
\texttt:   typewriter text (added in MathJax 2.4)

used to produce text-mode material (in a given font) within a mathematical expression;
MathJax does not process any macros within the text (unlike TEXTEX itself);
you can get math mode within the text using  \(...\)  delimiters
class ORD
\text #1
\textbf #1
\textit #1
\textrm #1
\textsf #1
\texttt #1
مثال ها :
 
|x| = x \text{ for all \(x \ge 0\)} نمایش می دهد |x|=x for all x0|x|=x for all x≥0
\text{\alpha in text mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد \alpha in text mode α\alpha in text mode α
\textbf{\alpha in textbf mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد \alpha in textbf mode α\alpha in textbf mode α
\textit{\alpha in textit mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد  \alpha in textit mode α \alpha in textit mode α
\textrm{\alpha in textrm mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد \alpha in textrm mode α\alpha in textrm mode α
\textsf{\alpha in textsf mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد \alpha in textsf mode α\alpha in textsf mode α
\texttt{\alpha in texttt mode }\alpha نمایش می دهد \alpha in texttt mode α\alpha in texttt mode α

see also:   \bf, \mathbf ;   \it, \mathit ;   \rm, \mathrm ;   \sf, \mathsf ;   \tt, \mathtt
\textstyle  
used to over-ride automatic style rules and force text (inline) style;
stays in force until the end of math mode or the braced group, or until another style is selected
class ORD
{ \textstyle ... }
مثال :
In display mode:
\frac ab + {\textstyle \frac cd + \frac ef} + \frac gh
نمایش می دهد
ab+cd+ef+ghab+cd+ef+gh

مثال :
In inline mode:
\frac ab+{\displaystyle\frac ab}+\frac ab+\scriptstyle\frac ab+\scriptscriptstyle\frac ab
نمایش می دهد:
ab+ab+ab+ab+abab+ab+ab+ab+ab

see also:   \displaystyle,   \scriptstyle,   \scriptscriptstyle
\tfrac AMSmath
  textstyle fraction
\tfrac #1 #2
مثال ها :
\tfrac ab \frac ab (display mode) نمایش می دهد abababab
\tfrac ab \frac ab (inline mode) نمایش می دهد abababab

see also:   \frac,   \dfrac
\therefore AMSsymbols
    class REL
\theta
\Theta
θθ
ΘΘ
lowercase Greek letter theta θ   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter theta Θ   class ORD
see also:   \vartheta,   \varTheta
\thickapprox AMSsymbols
مثال :
approx\ \ \thickapprox   نمایش می دهد     ≈  ≈
  class REL

see also:   \approx
\thicksim AMSsymbols
مثال :
sim\ \ \thicksim   نمایش می دهد     ∼  ∼
  class REL
\thinspace   thin space; normally 1616 of a quad

مثال :
thinspaces between letters:   abcdabcd

see also:   symbols for spaces,   \negthinspace
\tilde ~~
non-stretchy tilde accent ˜
\tilde #1
Usually, #1 is a single letter;  otherwise, accent is centered over argument.

مثال ها :
\tilde e نمایش می دهد ~ee~
\tilde E نمایش می دهد ~EE~
\tilde eu نمایش می دهد ~eue~u
\tilde{eu} نمایش می دهد ~eueu~
\times ××
  ×   class BIN
\tiny  
turns on tiny; a bit smaller than \Tiny class ORD
{\tiny ... }
مثال ها :
\tiny AaBb\alpha\beta123 نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
{\tiny A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\tiny AB \Tiny CD نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\tiny{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
\Tiny non-standard
 
turns on Tiny; a bit bigger than \tiny class ORD
{\Tiny ... }
مثال ها :
\Tiny AaBb\alpha\beta123 نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
{\Tiny A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\Tiny AB \tiny CD نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\Tiny{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
\to
non-stretchy   class REL
see also:   \rightarrow
tool tips   Tool tips are not built into MathJax, but you can click here to benefit from
a posting by Davide P. Cervone (April 2011) at the MathJax Users Group.
\top
    class ORD
\triangle  
\triangledown AMSsymbols
  class ORD
  class ORD

see also:   \ntriangleleft,   \ntriangleright,   \vartriangle,   \vartriangleleft,   \vartriangleright
\triangleleft  
\triangleright  
  class BIN
  class BIN

see also:   \ntriangleleft,   \ntriangleright,   \vartriangle,   \vartriangleleft,   \vartriangleright
\trianglelefteq AMSsymbols
\trianglerighteq AMSsymbols
  class REL
  class REL

see also:   \ntrianglelefteq,   \ntrianglerighteq
\triangleq AMSsymbols
    class REL
\tt  
turns on typewriter type class ORD
{\tt ... }
مثال ها :
\tt AaBb\alpha\beta123 نمایش می دهد AaBbαβ123AaBbαβ123
{\tt A B} A B نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\tt AB \rm CD نمایش می دهد ABABABAB
\tt{AB}CD نمایش می دهد ABCDABCD
\twoheadleftarrow AMSsymbols
\twoheadrightarrow AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL

U
\ulcorner AMSsymbols
\urcorner AMSsymbols
upper left corner   class REL
upper right corner   class REL
These are technically delimiters, but MathJax doesn't stretch them.
They are valid after  \left,  \right, and the various  \big  commands.

see also:   \llcorner,   \lrcorner
\underbrace   puts a (stretchy) under-brace under the argument;
can use ‘^’ to place an optional superscript over the argument;
can use ‘_’ to place an optional subscript below the underbrace
\underbrace #1
مثال :
\underbrace{x + \cdots + x}_{n\rm\ times}^{\text{(note here)} نمایش می دهد (note here)x++xn timesx+⋯+x⏟n times(note here)

see also:   \overbrace
\underleftarrow
\underrightarrow
\underleftrightarrow
stretchy under left arrow
stretchy under right arrow
stretchy under left right arrow
\underleftarrow #1
\underrightarrow #1
\underleftrightarrow #1
مثال ها :
\underleftarrow{\text{the argument}} نمایش می دهد the argument−−−−−−−−−the argument←
\underrightarrow{AB} نمایش می دهد ABAB→
\underrightarrow{AB\strut} نمایش می دهد ABAB→
\underleftrightarrow{\hspace1in} نمایش می دهد −−−−−−−−−
\underline _
stretchy underline _
 
\underline #1
مثال ها :
 
\underline{AB} نمایش می دهد ABAB_
\underline a نمایش می دهد aa_
\underline{\text{a long argument}} نمایش می دهد a long argument−−−−−−−−−−−−a long argument_
\underparen   puts a (stretchy) under-parenthesis (under-arc, smile) under the argument (new in MathJax 2.6)
\underparen #1
مثال :
\underparen a \quad
\underparen ab \quad 
\underparen{ab} \quad
\underparen{abc} \quad
\underparen{abcdef} \quad
\underparen{\overparen{abcd}}

نمایش می دهد
aabababcabcdefabcda⏝a⏝bab⏝abc⏝abcdef⏝abcd⏜⏝

see also:   \overparen,   \smallfrown,   \frown,   \smallsmile,   \smile
\underset  
\underset #1 #2
undersets argument #1 (in scriptstyle) under argument #2;
the top item is properly aligned with the surrounding text (their baselines match)

مثال ها :
\underset{\rm bottom}{\rm top} نمایش می دهد topbottomtopbottom
\underset ab نمایش می دهد baba
see also:   \overset
\unicode non-standard
 
implements a  \unicode{}  extension to TEXTEX that allows arbitrary unicode code points to be entered in mathematics;
can optionally specify height and depth of character (width is determined by browser);
can optionally specify the default font from which to take the character;
once a size and font are provided for a given unicode point, they need not be specified again in subsequent  \unicode{}  calls for that character
class ORD
\unicode[optHeight,optDepth][optFont]#1
مثال ها :
\unicode{x263a} نمایش می دهد  
نمایش می دهد (in math mode)  
\unicode[.55,0.05]{x22D6} نمایش می دهد less-than with dot, with
height 0.55em and depth 0.05em
\unicode[.55,0.05][Geramond]{x22D6} نمایش می دهد same, taken from Geramond font
\unicode[Geramond]{x22D6} نمایش می دهد same, but with default (height,depth) of (0.8em,0.2em)
\unlhd AMSsymbols
\unrhd AMSsymbols
underlined left-hand (left-pointing) diamond   class REL
underlined right-hand (right-pointing) diamond   class REL
\uparrow
\Uparrow
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\updownarrow
\Updownarrow
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\upharpoonleft AMSsymbols
\upharpoonright AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL
non-stretchy   class REL
\uplus
    class BIN
\uproot   used to fine-tune the placement of the index inside   \sqrt   or   \root   (see مثال ها )
\sqrt[... \uproot #1 ...]{...}
\root ... \uproot #1 ... \of {...}
where the argument is a small integer:
a positive integer moves the index up;
a negative integer moves the index down

In actual TeX,  \uproot  is not allowed in  \root ,
so this is a difference between MathJax and TEXTEX.

مثال ها :
\sqrt[3]{x} نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\sqrt[3\uproot2]{x} نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 3 \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3
\root 3\uproot{-2} \of x نمایش می دهد 3xx3

see also:   \leftroot,   \root
\upsilon
\Upsilon
υυ
ΥΥ
lowercase Greek letter upsilon υ   class ORD
uppercase Greek letter upsilon Υ   class ORD
see also:   \varupsilon,   \varUpsilon
\upuparrows AMSsymbols
non-stretchy   class REL

V
\varDelta AMSsymbols
ΔΔ